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Full text of "The great cottonseed industry of the South"

UC-NRLF 




The Great 



Cottonseed Industry 



or THE 



South 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 

Class 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 



BY 



LUTHER A. RANSOM 

Ex-President The Inter-State Cottoneed Crushers 3 

Association 



NEW YORK 

OIL, PAINT AND DRUG REPORTER 
IOO WILLIAM STREET 

IQII 






Copyright 

1911 

Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter 
New York 






THE GREAT COTTONSEED INDUS- 
TRY OF THE SOUTH 

PUBLISHERS' NOTE. 

In June, 1910, the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter re- 
quested the late Luther A. Ransom, of Atlanta, Ga., one of 
the most prominent men in the Cotton Oil Industry in the 
United States, who was an ex-President of the Interstate 
Cottonseed Crushers' Association, to prepare an article on 
the cottonseed industry for publication in that paper. On 
July 18 Mr. Ransom wrote that the article which he had 
been working on during his spare time had grown to the 
dimensions of a book, and stated that he believed the 
subject of the great cottonseed industry of the South, 
treated purely from a historical and industrial standpoint, 
ought to be of general interest to the public, and at his 
request the Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter undertook the 
publication of this book. On September 19 Mr. Ransom 
wrote a letter discussing certain mechanical features of 
the book, which had not definitely been decided upon. At 
that time the complete manuscript was in our hands. On 
September 20 we received information of Mr. Ransom's 
sudden death, which occurred on the 19th. 

The arrangements which Mr. Kansom had made for the 
publication of his book, just before his death, have been 
carried into effect by the publishers. The book is now 



223167 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 

offered to the public and to that wide circle of friends and 
business associates of the late Luther A. Ransom, who did 
so much to build up an industry which is becoming a great 
factor in the industrial development of the South, in the 
hope that it will bring to the attention of the Southern 
people the fact that, in the cottonseed industry, they have 
an opportunity for making their section of our country 
more prosperous. And in increasing the prosperity of the 
cotton belt, this industry will aid the whole country, for 
it is not only bringing foreign gold to our shores, but it is 
supplying to all the people pure and wholesome food prod- 
ucts at a lower cost than the other foods which it replaces. 
And in these days, Avheu the high cost of living is a most 
serious problem, anything which affords relief is welcomed 
as a blessing. If this book will encourage the farmers to 
raise better seed, the crushers to produce better and purer 
food products and better feed for cattle, if it will encourage 
the Southern farmers to raise more cattle, feeding them 
the rich foods stored up in the cottonseed, and if it will 
induce people to overcome their prejudices and eat the 
wholesome and delicious cottonseed salad oils, hogless 
lards and oleomargarines, then will the purpose of the 
book have been accomplished, and the people of this coun- 
try might well rise up and call the memory of Luther A. 
Ransom blessed. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 
PREFACE 9 

CHAPTER 1 13 

THE GREAT COTTONSEED INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTH-ITS SMALL 
BEGINNINGS ITS RECENT RAPID DEVELOPMENT THE SALES 
OF COTTONSEED OIL IN ALL THE MARKETS OF THE WORLD 
THE PIONEERS IN THE BUSINESS THE SENSATIONAL INCREASE 
IN TRADING IN COTTON OIL ON THE NEW YORK PRODUCE 
EXCHANGE THE PRODUCTS OF THE CRUDE COTTONSEED OIL 
MILLS THE FOREIGN TARIFFS ON COTTON OIL AND THEIR 
EFFECT ON THE INDUSTRY THE REFINED PRODUCTS THE 
IMPROVEMENT IN REFINING COTTON OIL AND THE RESULTS- 
EXPORTS THE INTERSTATE COTTONSEED CRUSHERS' ASSO- 
CIATION AND ITS POWER IN PROMOTING THE INTERESTS OF 
THE INDUSTRY A GLANCE AT THE FUTURE. 

CHAPTER II 38 

COTTONSEED AND COTTONSEED PRODUCTS (ADDRESS BEFORE 
THE COTTON SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA, 
ATHENS, GA., JANUARY, 1908) THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE 
FARMER AND THE OIL MILLS HOW EACH IS BENEFITED BY 
AND DEPENDENT UPON THE OTHER THE PRODUCTS MADE 
FROM COTTONSEED AND HOW, BY THE MANUFACTURE OF 
THESE PRODUCTS, THE MILLS HAVE GREATLY INCREASED THE 
VALUE OF THE COTTON CROP. 

CHAPTER III 54 

THE DAIRY AND OIL MILL INTERESTS (ADDRESS BEFORE THE 
GEORGIA DAIRY ASSOCIATION, GRIFFIN, GA.) HOW THE OIL 
MILL HAS BENEFITED THE DAIRY INTERESTS AND CATTLE 
RAISING INDUSTRY HOW THESE COMBINED INTERESTS MAY 
BE FURTHER PROMOTED BY CLOSER RELATIONS. 

CHAPTER IV 63 

GEORGIA PEOPLE BUY COTTON OIL IN PREFERENCE TO HOGS' 
LARD THE SUPERIORITY OF COTTON OIL OVER LARD. 



THE GREAT 

6 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

CHAPTER V 65 

A REVIEW OF THE PROGRESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
COTTON OIL INDUSTRY NEGLECTED OPPORTUNITIES A SOUTH- 
ERN MONOPOLY-A GROWTH AS SENSATIONAL AS THE CALI- 
FORNIA GOLD DISCOVERY OF '49 THE VALUE OF THE BY- 
PRODUCTS TO THE SOUTHERN CATTLE RAISER AND DAIRYMAN. 

CHAPTER VI 75 



ENGLISH AND AMERICAN COTTONSEED MILLS COTTONSEED 
MEAL. IN DENMARK AND THE UNITED STATES THE HIGH 
QUALITY OF AMERICAN COTTONSEED OIL THE VALUE OF 
VARIOUS AMERICAN FEED STUFFS, INCLUDING COTTONSEED 
MEAL AND RULLS. 

CHAPTER VII 79 

HOW TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF COTTONSEED RRODUCTS 
(ADDRESS BEFORE THE INTERSTATE COTTONSEED CRUSHERS' 
ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING AT NEW ORLEANS, LA., MAY 
16, 1905) SOME RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED BY PUBLICITY. 

CHAPTER VIII 83 

SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT COTTONSEED OIL, HOW IT 
MASQUERADED UNDER DIFFERENT NAMES IN DIFFERENT 
COUNTRIES HOW IT WAS MIXED AND BLENDED WITH OTHER 
AND INFERIOR PRODUCTS HOW IT WAS FINALLY PUT ON THE 
MARKET UNDER ITS OWN NAME AND TRIUMPHANTLY WON 
ON ITS MERITS. 

CHAPTER IX 85 

A GENERAL REVIEW OF THE COTTON OIL INDUSTRY (ANNUAL 
ADDRESS BEFORE THE INTERSTATE COTTONSEED CRUSHERS' 
ASSOCIATION, LOUISVILLE, KY., MAY 19, 1908) THE WORK OF 
THE INTERSTATE COTTONSEED CRUSHERS' ASSOCIATION FOR 
THE YEAR 1908 THE CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE INDUSTRY- 
ITS IMMENSE POSSIBILITIES THE CO-OPERATION OF THE 
NATIONAL GOVERNMENT IN PROMOTING ITS INTERESTS THE 
FOREIGN TRADE OLEOMARGARINE GRADING COTTONSEED- 
PUBLICITY BUREAU EXHIBITS OF COTTONSEED PRODUCTS. 

CHAPTER X 123 

A MODEST LITTLE STORY OF A BIG LITTLE SEED A SHORT 
SKETCH OF THE EARLY HISTORY OF COTTON OIL PURITY OF 
THE PRODUCT ITS VARIOUS USES ITS BENEFITS TO THE 
SOUTHERN COTTON GROWER. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Georgia cotton field, yielding over one bale to the acre .... 17 

A modern cotton ginnery at Cartersville, Ga. Capacity 100 

to 125 bales daily 21 

Cotton ginnery during the busy season 25 

Type of modern crude oil mill. The products are crude cot- 
tonseed oil; meal, hulls and linters 29 

Herd of 30 Jersey cows fed on cottonseed meal. They fur- 
nish $100 of cream per week 33 

Champion cow of Georgia. Gives annually, butter, 544.3; 
milk, 9,252. "PEARL," the best cow in the best herd, 
under daily observation, is fed on cottonseed meal to in- 
crease her wonderful production 37 

Cartoon, "Getting Together" 55 

Six horses and a mule, which get a daily ration of cottonseed 

meal 59 

Colt three hours old. Dam fed on cottonseed meal regularly 61 

Car go of cottonseed meal fertilisers on Chattahoochee River. 67 

Exterior view of large cotton oil refinery 7 1 

Interior view of large cotton oil refinery 73 

Interior view of cotton oil hogless lard plant 77 

Heart of the American sardine packing industry, where cot- 
ton oil is used in packing -fish 107 

An English exhibit of cotton oil and hogless lard. Confec- 
tioners' Exhibition, London 113 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



THE GREAT COTTONSEED INDUS- 
TRY OF THE SOUTH 



PREFACE. 

The Cotton Oil Industry of the South is unique. It is 
unusual and without a parallel. Its progress and develop- 
ment has been as brilliant as it has been useful. The field 
that it opened for the investment of capital has been a most 
attractive one, although it has not always been a profitable 
one for the investor. But the opportunities it has afforded 
for industrial improvement, thus promoting the general 
good of the country, has been unequalled. 

The student of political economy is fascinated by the 
possibilities of a proposition that, starting out with a raw 
material practically without value, converts it, in twenty 
years, into products worth one hundred million dollars. 
Large sums of money have been necessary to bring about 
this condition. A few of the things it has accomplished 
has been to increase the transportation business of the 
country, the payment of many thousands of dollars in 
wages, the employment of thousands of men, the annual 
increase of the export business of the United States, the 
great financial and economic value to the country of the 
production of cotton oil, thus giving to the consumer a 
sweet and wholesome product, and supplying a deficiency 
in the world's shortage of olive oil and butter, the enrich- 
ment of the soil by the use of Cottonseed Meal, a by-product 



THE GREAT 

10 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

of the seed, the greatly increased development of the dairy 
and live-stock interests of the South by the use of the meal 
and hulls, the establishment of mattress factories by the use 
of the linters, and the erection of plants for the manufac- 
ture of machinery used in operating cotton oil mills. While 
all of this domestic development has been in progress, 
cottonseed products have invaded the great olive groves of 
Europe and Asia, competing on equal terms with the 
products of the ancient olive, while the chief by-product, 
Cottonseed Meal, has been feeding the immense herds of 
cattle in Denmark and the dairy herds of England and 
Holland. When all of this has been considered the benefits 
of this wonderful industry command the attention of the 
students of industrial conditions in all countries. 

In accomplishing these magnificent results the industry 
has been of almost incalculable value to the immediate 
section where it has been established. It adds annually 
directly to the value of the cotton crop about one hundred 
million dollars, with all the incidental advantages that this 
direct increase brings with it. It is building packing- 
houses and, in time, will make the South the great cattle- 
raising section of the Union. The ramifications of this 
industry are so varied that they penetrate the fields, the 
factories and the homes of the people. Although/its chief 
product oil has been listed and traded in onvthe New 
York Produce Exchange for a comparatively shorf'time, 
the transactions in it now exceed those in lard, which has 
held a high place for many years. 

Among other industries, therefore, the cotton oil industry 
is a strong, lusty and vigorous young giant. Believing that 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 11 

OF THE SOUTH 

such an industry must be of great interest to the thousands 
who have their money invested in it, many of whom know 
little of its real importance and progress, as well as to those 
other thousands who produce and handle its products, and 
to the consumers of these products, I have brought together 
in these pages a number of historical and industrial articles 
treating on this subject, which were prepared by me during 
the last five or six years, together with other information 
that has not heretofore been published, and this is sub- 
mitted with the hope that it will still further promote the 
interests of an industry that is still growing, and upon 
whose success depends largely the financial and physical 
well being of many thousands of the people of the United 
States. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 13 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER I. 

THE GREAT COTTONSEED INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTH. 

ITS SMALL BEGINNINGS ITS RECENT RAPID DEVELOPMENT 
THE SALES OF COTTONSEED OIL IN ALL THE MARKETS OF THE 
WORLD THE PIONEERS IN THE BUSINESS THE SENSA- 
TIONAL INCREASE IN TRADING IN COTTON OIL ON THE NEW 
YORK PRODUCE EXCHANGE THE PRODUCTS OF THE CRUDE 
COTTONSEED OIL MILLS THE FOREIGN TARIFFS ON COTTON 
OIL AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE INDUSTRY THE REFINED 
PRODUCTS THE IMPROVEMENT IN REFINING COTTON OIL 
AND THE RESULTS EXPORTS THE INTERSTATE COTTON- 
SEED CRUSHERS' ASSOCIATION AND ITS POWER IN PRO- 
MOTING THE INTERESTS OF THE INDUSTRY A GLANCE AT 
THE FUTURE. 

Travelers on the Mediterranean Sea, looking across to 
the limestone cliffs and hills of Southern Europe and 
Northern Africa, are charmed by the white blooms and 
grayish green foliage of the olive groves. The olive is sup- 
posed to have originated in Syria, the home of the date, the 
fig and pomegranate, and gradually extended through 
Spain, Italy, France and along the entire Mediterranean 
coast. The waters of the Mediterranean, being warmer in 
winter and cooler in summer than the air, maintain a 
uniformity of temperature favorable to the complete devel- 
opment of the olive. The tree is partial to sea breezes, and 
this, with the limestone soils, is necessary for the perfection 
of the fruit. Its production must, therefore, be confined 



THE GREAT 

14- COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

largely to sections where such conditions of soil and climate 
prevail. 

While the olive has been grown to some extent in Cali- 
fornia, Mississippi and Georgia, its fullest development in 
the United States has been on the California coast, and 
even there the output is comparatively small. 

As the demand for olive oil and other edible oils in 
Europe exceeded the production, it became necessary for 
consumers to look elsewhere for an oil equally as good to 
supply the shortage. Nature, which never permits a 
vacuum in her beneficial scheme of production, has 
selected the garden land of America to fill this requirement. 

On the eastern slopes of the Allegheny range and in the 
southern valley of the Mississippi Elver, with two mighty 
ranges of mountains to guard it, and more than three rivers 
to water its fields, its temperature equalized by the waters 
of the Gulf of Mexico at its feet and the waves of the Atlan- 
tic on the east, the Eden of America, whose flaming swords 
have all been turned into ploughshares, lies basking in the 
brightest sunshine that ever smiled upon this earth. 

The delightful climate of the cotton belt of the South 
rivals that of Italy, the scenery of the country is as charm- 
ing and the cotton plant, with its cream and crimson col- 
ored blooms, its pure white fruit and dark green foliage, 
yields nothing in point of beauty by comparison with the 
olive. 

Taken altogether, therefore, it was natural that the 
Southern States of the Union should be expected to supply 
any deficiencies in the products of other countries so closely 
resembling it in natural conditions, and the South is meet- 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 15 

OF THE SOUTH 

ing fully this expectation by the manufacture of its cotton 
oil, not only supplying Europe, but the rapidly increasing 
domestic demand. 

"Dr. Benjamin Waring established the first paper, oil 
and grist mills at Columbia, S. C., and expressed from 
cottonseed a very good oil.'' 

This is the brief announcement in Mills' "Statistics of 
South Carolina," published in 1826, of the birth of a great 
industry in the South. Nothing more is recorded except 
that Dr. Waring was "a great encourager of useful arts" 
and was State Treasurer. We are, therefore, left to con- 
jecture as to other conditions existing at that time or how 
much this mill contributed to the future development of the 
industry, but we can imagine what might have caused Dr. 
Waring to make "a very good oil" from cottonseed and how 
he came to do it. 

Being a professional man and a scholar he was somewhat 
of a dreamer and, of course, a student. He operated a grist 
mill located on the Congaree River, on the banks of the 
canal that furnished the power to run the mill. He doubt- 
less also ran a small cotton gin and in order to get rid of 
the seed they were thrown into the canal to be carried off 
later by the rise of the river, as they were then without 
value, except such as were needed for replanting. 

Nearly all great discoveries are made by accident. Dr. 
Waring, in an absent-minded way, probably picked up a few 
seed and thoughtlessly placed them in his mouth. They 
had a rich, nutty flavor and tasted good. This increased 
his interest, and he further noted that where the seed had 
been trampled on they gave off a rich, golden-yellow oil. 



THE GREAT 

16 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTB 

He concluded that if the flavor of the seed was good the oil, 
if properly handled, was valuable. He probably fitted up 
a crude hand press, as the Chinese had done two thousand 
years before him, and expressed the oil. He was further 
convinced of its value, and, in the satisfaction over his 
discovery, discussed it with his friends, and Mills recorded 
the discovery. Or it is possible that he may have traveled 
in England and heard of, or visited, the cotton oil mill of 
Foster Brothers at Gloucester that had been there in active 
operation for one hundred years before Dr. Waring made 
his investigations. But, whatever was the cause of this 
early attempt toward the manufacture of cotton oil, it has 
been followed by one of the South's most interesting and 
most important developments. 

Georgia had an oil mill in 1832, but its history is 
recorded in about as few words as that of the South Caro- 
lina plant. 

The commercial importance of the industry had its be- 
ginning from 1850 to 1855. It had just begun to attract 
attention when its further development was arrested by the 
Civil War between the North and South. The pioneers of 
the fifties were Pierre Paul Martin, Paul Aldige and Am- 
brose A. McGiaBi^ all of New Orleans, La. Immediately 
after the war attention was again directed to the business, 
and General E. P. Alexander, formerly of Savannah, Ga., 
established a mill at Columbia, S. C., in 1866. Mr. C. E. 
Girardey followed with another mill at New Orleans, La., 
in 1868. It was, however, not until about 1880 that the 
industry actively attained commercial importance in the 
South. It met with one reverse after another until a great 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



majority of the mills were brought under the ownership of 
one large company, which, for several years, practically 
controlled the output of all of the mills. 

Among the leading men of that period were Mr. J. J. 




Georgia Cotton Field, Yielding Over One Bale to the Acre. 

McCann, of Tennessee; J. F. and M. J. O'Shaughnessy, of 
Tennessee; Kobert Gibson, of Texas; George A. Morrison 
and K. F. Munro, of New York ; Moses Frank, of Georgia ; 
Jo W. Allison, of Texas ; E. M. Durham, of Mississippi ; A. 
D. Allen, of Arkansas ; T. E. Chancy, of Connecticut ; J. O. 



THE GREAT 

If C9TT9NSEE9 IN9U8TRT 

*F THE StUTH 

Carpenter, of Mississippi; A. E. Thornton, of Georgia, and 
George O. Baker, of Alabama. 

These men builded well, even better than they knew, and 
laid firmly the foundation of the present magnificent 
edifice. 

In 1887 the Southern Cotton Oil Company entered the 
field with mills located in South Carolina, Georgia, Ala- 
bama, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana and Tennessee. The 
establishment of these mills by a company with ample 
capital gave new life to the industry. The officers were 
Henry C. Butcher, of Philadelphia, president ; John Oliver, 
of New York, treasurer ; Fred Oliver, of Charlotte, general 
manager, and D. A. Tompkins, of Charlotte, chief engineer. 
They had associated with them in the South L. W. Haskell, 
at Savannah; C. FitzSimons and J. S. Price, at Columbia; 
Henry Oliver, at Atlanta; A. C. Landry, at New Orleans; 
Alston Boyd, at Memphis; J. J. Culbertson, at Little Rock; 
E. W. Thompson and J. W. Black, at Montgomery, and 
W. G. Kay, at Houston. Many of these men are actively 
engaged in the business at this time. 

The industry continued to grow by the establishment of 
many smaller mills and at present the number in the 
United States exceeds eight hundred, with a capital of over 
one hundred million dollars. 

There are one hundred and forty-five crude oil mills in 
the State of Georgia. Of these, one hundred and seven are 
owned by local interests, farmers, bankers and merchants. 
The other thirty-eight are controlled by outside capital. 
There is, therefore, no monopoly in the business in Georgia, 
nor anywhere else in the South. These mills in Georgia 



THE GltEAT 

C*TT*NSEE9 IN&UST&Y If 

#F THE S6UTH 

crush about 450,000 to 500,000 tons of seed annually and 
produce about 350,000 to 400,000 barrels of crude oil, from 
200,000 to 225,000 tons of meal, 125,000 to 150,000 tons 
of hulls and 35,000 to 40,000 bales of linters. There are 
four refineries in Georgia, two operated by the larger com- 
panies and two by the local mills. There are two hogless 
lard plants in the State. 

Competition between all of these interest* comes in the 
purchase of seed and the sale of the by-products meal, 
hulls and linters. Georgia refiners must, of course, com- 
pete with each other for the crude oil, and with the re- 
fineries operated in other parts of the United States, the 
packers of the West and European buyers. 

Some of the larger companies have established mills for 
crushing seed as well as refining the oil, and have thus 
become competitors for the raw material, but notwithstand- 
ing this competition the small mills, by reason of their 
nearness to the cotton fields, are able not only to market 
their seed without freights, but can dispose of their by- 
products at home, where they are needed by the farmers, 
stock-raisers and dairymen, at less expense than their 
larger competitors. These advantages will probably be 
sufficient to sustain these small mills in any competition 
coming from the larger interests, although, on account of 
this, the profit of the home mill will be decreased. 

Nothing shows more clearly the development of the busi- 
ness than the contrast between Dr. Waring's little enter- 
prise on the banks of the Congaree River in 1826 and the 
following article from the New York Herald of November 
12, 1909 : 



THE GREAT. 

20 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

"Although for many years business on the New York 
Produce Exchange has gradually been growing smaller, 
there is one department that is growing at a remarkable 
rate. That is the cottonseed oil department. The growth 
in trading in this commodity has been so great that the 
quarters for the traders who specialize in that line are to be 
enlarged. 

"Cotton oil traders are to have a pit in the center of the 
big exchange floor. At present the cotton oil crowd has 
a little circle off at one corner of the room, and about a 
dozen brokers crowd the limited space. A pit similar to 
the pit on the cotton exchange, and as large, is to be pro- 
vided for the traders. 

"Only a few years ago if two thousand barrels of oil 
were traded in it was counted an active day's market. Now 
they count it an active market when the sales aggregate 
40,000 barrels in a day. 

"So important has become the New York cottonseed oil 
market that its quotations are accepted all over the world 
as a basis for official quotations, and the figures are cabled 
to all parts of the world at the close of trading. The tele- 
graph companies have established on the Produce Ex- 
change permanent offices for the exclusive dissemination of 
cottonseed oil news. 

" 'There is more than $100,000,000 invested in the cotton- 
seed oil industry in this country/ said a leading specialist 
yesterday, 'and the commodity is becoming more and more 
a vehicle for speculation. I remember when total sales in 
the market would not average more than 2,000 barrels a 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 21 

OF THE SOUTH 

day. Yesterday I sold 10,000 barrels myself and have sold 
as high as 20,000 barrels in a day.' 

"At present the market is not only very active, but prices 
are very high. This is naturally due to the fears of a short 
cotton crop as regards new oil, which will actually appear 
next month. As for the old crop, it is high because of the 
exceptionally fine quality of the oil, the product last year 
having been the best in recent years." 

What is known as a crude oil mill in America produces 




A Modern Cetttn Ginnery at C&rtersville } Ga. Capacity 

9aily. 



if) 



crude cottonseed oil, cottonseed meal, hulls and linters. In 
the United States the oil is the most valuable product, and 
this commodity gives the mill its name. In England they 
are called cake mills, because the cake is more valuable 
than the oil, which is inferior to the American oil. The 
English mills make the same products, except hulls. In 
England the hulls are all ground into the meal, while in 
this country they are separated. 



THE GREAT 

22 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

( The crude oil is sold to the refiners, who convert it into 
refined oil. In the process of refining the crude oil the 
residue is called "soap stock' 7 and is utilized by the soap 
manufacturers throughout the country. 

The refined oil enters into the manufacture of such com- 
mercial products as salad and cooking oils, hogless lard 
and oleomargarine, and is not only used in this country, 
but enters into competition throughout the world with olive 
oil, butter, lard and similar edible greases. 
I The cottonseed meal is the ground cake and is used for 
stock feeding, both in this country and abroad and in the 
Southern States enters largely into the manufacture of 
commercial fertilizers. 

1 The lint, which is the short cotton cut from the seed is 
used chiefiy in the manufacture of mattresses, pillows, 
comforts, quilts and similar articles, and in foreign coun- 
tries is converted into gun cotton, known as the highest of 
explosives. 

I The hulls are used only in the South for stock-feeding, 
taking the place of hay, corn, fodder, corn shucks and sim- 
ilar products. Experiments already made indicate that 
this product will possibly be converted into paper stock, 
which will give it a higher value than as a feed stuff. 

There is not an article produced by the oil mills that 
cannot be used in some form by the grower of the seed, and 
just as the values increase so will the value of seed for 
milling purposes be enhanced. It is not difficult, therefore, 
to point out the close relation existing between the cotton 
farmer and the cotton oil^Rills. Their interests are mu- 
Uuai and, therefore, the more of these products the farmers 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 23 

OF THE SOUTH 

consume the better prices they will realize for their surplus 
seed that is, the seed not used for planting, and on thej 
present value of cottonseed products no seed should be 
used for any other purpose than for planting or milling. 
There is no outlet for seed that gives them such value as > 
the oil mills. 

Practically all of the profit earned by the cotton oil mills 
is disbursed in the locality where it is made. If there was 
nothing else to make the industry popular, this fact alone 
should give it a place in the South above all other manu- 
facturing estabishments. It is nearer to the farmer than 
all other factories. It is now operated almost on the basis 
of the local grist mill; it works on toll, returning to the 
farmer the products of his seed, after deducting an amount 
sufficient to cover the cost of production and a reasonable 
profit sometimes no profit at all. 

Cottonseed oil has become a staple product in European f 
as well as in American markets in fact, it largely regu- 
lates all of the markets of the world in competition with 
similar products. In all countries its high qualities are 
recognized, and in no country is it regarded as having any 
rival of equal value, with the possible exception of olive 
oil. In comparison with all edible oils it stands at the head. , 

It has spread over Europe, including every olive country 
in the Mediterranean basin. It has been the subject of 
tariff laws in all of these countries. It has engaged the 
attention of the cabinets and governments of France, Aus- 
tria, Spain, Italy and Turkey. Eecently it was one of the 
articles that threatened to disturb tariff relations between 
the United States and Germany and France. When the 



THE GREAT 

24 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

last tariff bill was passed by the United States the Italian 
Ambassador was censured by his countrymen for failing 
to protect their interests in this bill by bringing about such 
reciprocity as would give the Italian olive growers the favor- 
able terms which they thought should have been obtained. 

1 In Turkey the olive growers threatened some years ago that 
if cotton oil was admitted to that country they would de- 
stroy their groves in retaliation for such action by their 

I government. This Avas finally adjusted, and cotton oil is 
now admitted to the Ottoman empire free of all duties. 
Spain excluded it entirely for the protection of their olive 
growers and Austria followed. Germany, France and 
Italy levied heavy taxes, and even little Servia imposes a 
tax of four cents per pound on it, but in spite of all of these 
artificial barriers to the sale of cottonseed oil it has moved 
steadily forward and captured the world's markets. 

The highest and best use of the oil is as an edible product. 
When used for cooking it is the best and most economical 
of all commodities now used for that purpose, not only 
because its market value is less than butter and lard, but 
because it will go one-third further than lard and equally 
as far as butter. 

As late as 1879 the Encyclopedia Britannica did not list 
cotton oil as an edible product. Later even than this, a 
Western lard manufacturer thought of compounding it 
with hogs' lard and was warned that it was unwholesome, 
just as some few experts had warned the people regarding 
the "love apple," which came afterward to be known as the 
lucious and appetizing tomato, and just as some United 
States Government experts have warned stock-feeders 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 25 

OF THE SOUTH 

against the use of cottonseed meal on account of the "toxic" 
qualities contained therein, although these same feeders 
throughout Europe and America were then fattening whole 
herds of cattle on cottonseed meal in England, Holland, 
Denmark and on the plains of Texas. The lard manufac- 
turer referred to submitted samples of cottonseed oil to the 




Cotton Ginnery During the Busy Season. 

leading chemists of Europe and America, who pronounced 
it not only pure and absolutely free from objectionable mat- 
ter, but one of the best of all vegetable oils, and he proceeded 
to use the results of his investigations in the manufacture 
of his "pure leaf lard," which product became one of the 
most popular commodities of its kind under this brand, 
and has continued to command satisfactory prices on the 



THE GREAT 

26 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

market advertised under its own brand as a cottonseed oil 
product. 

J For many years the refiners were content to use ordinary 
methods of refining, which produced an oil which had left 
in it an acrid flavor with some other objectionable features 
which prevented a general introduction and use of the oil 
for edible purposes. Efforts were made to get it into gen- 
eral consumption, but after the expenditure of large sums 
for advertising, and without materially increasing the de- 
mand, the manufacturers found it more profitable to export 
the oil to foreign countries, where it was used in blending 
with olive oil and in the manufacture of butter, and in large 
quantities returned to America under other names, greatly 
enhanced in value. At that time about two-thirds of the 
oil was exported. At present only about one-third of the 
oil is sent to foreign countries. 

/ The discovery of the Wesson process of refining cotton 
oil, by which the product was put on the market in a con- 
dition of absolute purity and flavor, gave a tremendous 
impetus to the use of the oil in America, as it not only 
proved a thoroughly wholesome product, but stimulated 
the other manufacturers generally to the production of bet- 
ter oils than they had previously produced. The bakers 
were, perhaps, the first to acknowledge its value from an 
economical standpoint. They were followed, naturally, by 
the housekeepers and hotels of the country, and at present 
the Wesson brand is the standard of excellence for all cot- 
ton oil, and is almost as well known to the hotels, bakers 
and households as flour, hogs' lard and butter. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 27 

OF THE SOUTH 

Some people still buy "pure olive oil" for salad purposes 
and honestly believe that it is superior to cotton oil. 

"Pure olive oil" is not much more than a catch word, 
although, of course, the article may be entirely olive oil. 
Much of the olive oil used locally in those countries where 
it is produced for cooking purposes is so rank in flavor that 
an American consumer would not touch it, nor an Amer- 
ican stomach stand it. In many of those countries the 
farmers carry the olives to the mills, simply have the oil 
expressed and then put up in bladders. This is one kind 
of "pure olive oil." 

Why should any cotton grower use olive oil either for 
salad or cooking purposes \vhen he can get cotton oil made 
from his own seed that is just as pure, just as palatable and 
in many cases more digestible than olive oil? Why should 
any cotton farmer buy Western lard instead of hogless lard 
or cotton oil and pay just as much for it per pound as he 
pays for the Southern products which are just as much 
his own products as the meal ground at the grist mills from 
his own corn? 

In European countries the best grade of cotton oil is j 
used for salad and cooking, also in the manufacture of * 
various kinds of butter compounds, called oleomargarine, . 
etc. In those countries the use of cotton oil in this way is 
encouraged by the governments because butter has become 
so scarce that people of ordinary means are unable to use it 
and desire something at lower prices of as good quality as 
butter, and oleomargarine answers every purpose for which 
butter is used. 

The composition of this product is about sixty per cent. 



THE GREAT 

28 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

of fresh, sweet milk, about twenty-five per cent, of high- 
grade cotton oil and fifteen per cent, of oleo stearine. The 
formulas and percentages of each ingredient vary in differ- 
ent sections, but these proportions represent the average. 
Oleo stearine is manufactured from the choicest of beef 
fats, thoroughly inspected by the government before it is 
used in the manufacture of oleomargarine. It is used only 
to give the mixture the consistency of butter. While other 
governments, just as careful about the health of their 
people as our own government, encourage the manufacture 
of this product, our government levies a tax on oleomar- 

\ garine of two cents per pound if uncolored and ten cents 
per pound if colored. 

I Butter manufacturers use a harmless coloring matter, 
and oleomargarine manufacturers would do so if permitted, 
simply to improve the appearance of the product and cater 
to the prejudice of consumers, who prefer the golden-yellow 
color, both in oleomargarine and in butter, to the white 
product, 

f In Denmark the people last year used over 60,000,000 
pounds of oleomargarine. The population of that country 
is only 2,000,000, so that the consumption really meant over 
thirty pounds per capita. On the same basis the American 
people would consume 3,000,000,000 pounds per annum, 
and the oil needed for this production would amount to 
over 2,300,000 barrels, possibly two-thirds of the produc- 
tion of cotton oil in this country. 

In 1880 about 130,000 barrels of oil were exported to 
European countries and only about 20,000 barrels used in 
the United States. The oil is now exported to almost every 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 29 

0^ THE SOUTH 

civilized country. The last Treasury statistics report, end- 
ing February 23, shows shipments of from three barrels to 
Port Maria, Jamaica, to 51,137 barrels to Rotterdam, Hol- 
land. The average annual exports is about 1,000,000 bar- 
rels, with an average value of about $16,000,000. The oil 
is in general use throughout the entire Mediterranean 




Type of Modern Crude til Mill. The Products Are Crude Cot- 
tonseed Oil, Meal, Hulls and Linters. 

basin the home of the olive oil. The bulk of the ship-; 
ments go to England, Holland, Germany, France and Italy 1 
The value of the exports from September 1 to February 
24 amounted to about |6,000,000. Heavy tariffs levied by; 
the governments of Germany, Italy, France and Austria, 
together with the substitution of other vegetable oils for ' 
cotton oil, have considerably reduced exports from this 
country, but the decrease of the use of the oil in other ' 



r, 



THE GREAT 

30 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

countries has been made up by its domestic use. The total 
production for the year 1909-1910 is estimated at around 
3,000,000 barrels, of which fully 2,000,000 barrels will be 
used at home. This remarkable increase, both in the pro- 
duction and consumption, has been due to the recognition 
of the high value of the product both in this country and 
Europe. 

Next to oil, cottonseed meal is the most important article 
of the mills. Its best use is in feeding horses, cattle, sheep 
and hogs, but considerable quantities of it are still used as 
an ammoniate in commercial fertilizers. In addition to 
the amount consumed at home the exports of cottonseed 
meal for the year ending June 30, 1909, was over 600,000 
tons, valued at about $16,000,000. The bulk of these ship- 
ments have gone to Denmark, Germany, Holland, Norway, 
England, Scotland and France. Denmark alone took over 
200,000 tons and Germany nearly as much. All of the 
ineal shipped to these foreign countries is used for stock 
feeding. Danish bacon is famous all over Europe, and it 
iV said that the hogs from which this bacon is raised are fat- 
tened on cottonseed meal. 

Linters are not classified in the Treasury Department 
statistics and, consequently, no estimate of the value of this 
product can be made. 

The total annual value of the exports of all cottonseed 
products averages about $30,000,000. 

The late Colonel George W. Scott, of Decatur, Ga., was 
the pioneer in the use of cottonseed meal as an ammoniate 
for commercial fertilizers. His great success in its use 
was quickly adopted by other manufacturers, and at the 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 31 

OF THE SOUTH 

present time this product is used extensively for this pur- 
pose. A large number of mills have fertilizer factories in 
connection with their oil mills. On account of their loca- 
tion the local mills are able to deliver to the farmers 
promptly the fertilizers as needed, and, having the meal as 
one of their raw materials on hand, they are able to manu- 
facture at a very reasonable cost. Popularity and value of 
meal goods is now well known to all of the cotton farmers. 
They are directly interested in its use because it gives a 
greater value to the seed. 

I The history of the njnj^o^is of the cotton oil industry is 
he history of the Interstate Cottonseed Crushers' Asso- 
ciation, which was organized in Nashville, Tenn., in July, 
1897. The officers and members of this association are 
engaged in the manufacture of cottonseed products and 
personally interested in the success of the business. They 
loyally, diligently and successfully devoted their time, their 
intelligence and their energy to the promotion of the in- 
dustry, in which not only they were personally interested, 
but the interests of the farmers of the South were involved. 
Membership in this association is the standard by which 
men engaged in the industry are measured. Kecognizing 
that publicity is the best method for promoting the success 
of any product worthy of recognition the association 
created a bureau for the purpose of showing the "Man from 
Missouri," as well as the man from everywhere, the value 
of cottonseed products. In addition to informing our own 
people on this subject the Bureau of Publicity desired to 
reach the world at large. With the active assistance and 
encouragement of similar State organizations and of the 



THE GREAT 

32 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

State Department at Washington and the Department of 
Commerce and Labor, under the immediate supervision of 
Hon. John M. Carson, chief of the Bureau of Manufactures, 
a special agent, representing cottonseed products, was sent 
to all parts of Europe to study the conditions affecting 
these products. The United States consuls in all parts of 
the world were instructed to make similar investigations 
and report fully. This has been done for about three years, 
and the results have been eminently successful and satis- 
factory. 

The publication of the reports from the special agents 
and consular officers in American newspapers, trade jour- 
nals and periodicals has intensified the interest in the 
American product and it has been followed by a greatly in- 
creased demand for it in America. So greatly has the do- 
mestic demand increased that the European dealers, finding 
the price so high in America as to make its use almost 
prohibitive to them, have been scouring Europe to find 
some substitute for it. The reports of trade journals and 
consular reports clearly show that these substitutes are 
compared with cotton oil as the standard before being 
accepted. The exports this year hardly exceed one-third of 
last year at the same time, but the increased demand for the 
oil in the United States has taken all the surplus heretofore 
exported. 

Favorable responses to the publicity work of the asso- 
ciation came much more quickly from the foreigners than 
from our own people, especially our farmers, who are more 
vitally interested than the people of any other country, and 
while the farmers are showing much more interest than 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 33 

OF THE SOUTH 

formerly, many of them still do not fully recognize the 
superiority of cottonseed products over all competing com- 
modities. Some of them still believe that olive oil is better 
for salads and cooking, because they have believed it all of 
their lives, and some of them seem to think that hogs' lard 
is as good as hogless lard. Time, however, will correct all 
of this at home. The recognition of the full value of cotton 
oil and its products is fast coming, if it has not already 
arrived. There is, however, a more serious condition re- 




Herd of Thirty Jersey Cows Fed on Cottonseed Meal. They 
Furnish $100 of Cream Per Week. 

garding the by-products cottonseed meal and hulls. 
While these products are very generally used by our dairy- 
men and stockmen, some of them continue to use corn and 
oats and mixed Western feeds for stock feed, allowing 
New England and Europe to haul away the meal and hulls 
from their very doors. Some farmers continue to use blood 
and other animal ammoniates in their fertilizers, ordered 
from Western slaughter-houses, instead of using cottonseed / 
meal- the best ammoiiiate in the world. They do not seem 
to realize that this is a most wasteful method. Those 
farmers who do this are acting contrary to their own inter- 



THE GREAT 

34 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

ests, directly and indirectly. By their failure to co-operate 
with the oil mills they are depreciating the value of their 
cottonseed. Such a policy is unwise and wasteful. The 
mills can stand it better than the farmers, because the peo- 
ple of every other country need and take the meal. Our 
farmers possibly do not understand that there is not a 
farm of seventy-five acres in Georgia that cannot raise some 
beef cattle, practically without cost, as the droppings from 
cattle fed on cottonseed meal and hulls, properly cared for, 
is worth as much as the meal and hulls are as a fertilizer 
before being fed. If a general policy of feeding some cattle 
on every farm was adopted by our farmers it would lead to 
the establishment of packing-houses, and this would make 
the South the great live stock section of America. Instead 
of bringing into Georgia about $750,000 worth of beef every 
week, and sending that much money out of Georgia, as one 
packer has recently stated : Georgia would be shipping beef 
to other States and bringing into the State an equal amount 
or more money than they are now sending away. The 
benefit of the change is easily understood. 

Dr. A. M. Soule, president of the Georgia College of Agri- 
culture, in an address recently delivered at Macon, shows 
that by the use of cottonseed meal as a feed for mules the 
farmers of Georgia can raise as fine mules as the West at 
a cost of about $60, instead of $160, average cost per head of 
Western stock. Judge Henry C. Hammond, of Augusta, 
has shown by his own personal experience of years that 
horses as work stock can be economically and successfully 
raised and worked on cottonseed meal feed. 

Opportunities on these lines are almost limitless and in 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 35 

OF THE SOUTH 

time will be fully utilized, but every day that this is post- 
poned is deferring the further and greater and general _ 
prosperity of this section. 

At the annual meeting of the Interstate Cottonseed 
Crushers' Association in Louisville, Ky., in May, 1908, the 
president of the association cited the reports of consular 
officers and special agents showing the great interest inl 
cotton oil in foreign countries and America and, based on\ 
these reports, predicted a shortage in vegetable oils, and 
consequently the high prices that would follow. The 
cotton oil interests of the South realized this year the 
soundness of the prediction: the shortage developed and 
the high prices followed the highest for cotton oil ever 
known. It is safe to say that nothing less than a financial 
panic can bring about much lower prices in years to come. 
The population of the world is increasing, while the pro- 
duction of vegetable oils shows no appreciable increase, ani 
new uses are being found for all of these oils. A butl 
shortage, almost a famine; already exists, and it is said thj 
in some parts of Europe the people have not seen real butl 
in twenty years. Oleomargarine, composed largely of 
cotton oil, has satisfactorily supplanted it. The demand 
for this commodity is constantly increasing, necessitating 
a greater consumption of cotton oil. Hogless lard com-*"*' 
pounds are more generally used every year and cotton/ 
oil is the largest factor in the manufacture of this product, 
while the demand for the oil itself is constantly increasing. 
There is nothing in present conditions to indicate that \ 
cotton oil will ever reach the former low levels of prices. 

In answer to questions from an old Confederate veteran 



THE GREAT 

36 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

at Mount Airy, Ga., I told hi in how we now made cotton oil 
that fed the people in place of butter and lard ; cottonseed 
meal that was now used in making bread, taking the place 
of wheat and corn bread, and how this commodity further 
supported and fattened horses, mules, cattle and hogs, fer- 
tilized ihe land and made big crops of all kinds; linters 
that were used in the manufacture of quilts, mattresses, 
pillows and paper, as well as gun cotton, and hulls that 
took the place in feeding cattle of timothy hay, corn fodder, 
shucks and all other roughage. As I continued to enumer- 
ate these products and their use, the old soldier jumped to 
his feet and said : "If we had had oil mills during the war 
the Yankees could never have whipped us." After cooling 
down a litle he added: "You know the Yanks never did 
whip us, they just starved us out, and they could never have 
done this If we had had oil mills," and the old hero almost 
wept over the neglected opportunities. 

It is not at all likely that the question of "whipping the 
Yanks" will ever come up for consideration again, but the 
veteran's view of the possibilities of cottonseed products 
was not overrated. 

The farmer in selling his seed, the mills in crushing them, 
the refiners in putting the oil in marketable condition, the 
brokers who have handled the product and the trade jour- 
nals which have advertised them have all done their part in 
the development of this great industry. If they would all 
pull together, the farmer using the mills- products more 
extensively, the crude mill recognizing its dependence upon 
the farmer for its seed, the refiner dealing liberally with 
the crude mill for his oil, the brokers increasing, so far as 



THE GREAT 
COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



37 



possible, the value of the products and the trade journals 

continuing to do their splendid part in the work, the money 

* 

value of the product of this industry would be greatly 




Champion Cow of Georgia. Gives Annually, Butter 544-3, Milk 

9,252. "Pearl" the Best Cozv in the Best Herd, Under 

Daily Observation, is fed on Cottonseed Meal 

to Increase Her Wonderful Production. 

enhanced, and it is not impossible, if this is done, that we 
may soon be able to report, as an accomplished fact, that 
the value of the seed is equal to the value of the cotton 
itself. 



THE GREAT 

38 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER II. 
COTTONSEED AND COTTONSEED PRODUCTS. 

(Address before the Cotton School of the University of 
Georgia, Athens, Ga., January, 1908.) 

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FARMER AND THE OIL MILLS- 
HOW EACH IS BENEFITTED BY AND DEPENDENT UPON THE 
OTHER THE PRODUCTS MADE FROM COTTONSEED AND 
HOW, BY THE MANUFACTURE OF THESE PRODUCTS, THE 
MILLS HAVE GREATLY INCREASED THE VALUE OF THE 
COTTON CROP. 

I read a story some time since about a man who said lie 
was going out to give his friends some good advice about 
their business. He returned very shortly and, on being 
asked whether or not he had carried out his intentions, he 
said he had not, because as soon as he undertook to tell 
his friends something about their business they tried to 
advise him about his business, and that was one thing he 
would not allow anybody to do. I don't want you to think 
I am advising you entirely about your business, because in 
the proposition I am expected to discuss I am almost as 
much interested as you are. 

You have been told, and will be told by others, all about 
the selection of seed for planting and the advantages to 
you in doing this from an increased yield of the fibre. My 
part of the program in this respect is to tell you how you 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 39 

OF THE SOUTH 

may benefit by a better selection and handling of the seed 
by increasing the value of the seed itself and to explain^ 
to you how the oil mills will be benefited by such action 
on your part. 

If 1 was asked broadly to state how this result may be 
accomplished quickest I would answer : First, plant better 
seed and take better care of them, and, second, buy more of i 
the products of the oil mills. 

If you want to get more money for your seed you must 
furnish the mills better seed and you must consume as 
much of their product as possible, which will increase the 
value of the products and, necessarily, enhance the value of 
the seed. 

When George Francis Train was asked how Kansas City 
could become as large a pork-packing center as Chicago, he 
answered, "Kill more pigs." On the same line, to get 
better prices you must furnish better seed and you must 
buy more of the products of the seed. 

In a report of the Department of Commerce and Labor, 
1906, published under the direction of the Director of the 
Census, it is stated : 

"Possibly the most difficult problem in connection with 
the cottonseed products industry is the proper storing and 
preservation of these seed. The lint is almost waterproofs* 
and is but little injured in passing from the field to the 
factory, but not so with the seed, which is very easily 
injured and reaches the mill in much worse condition rela- 
tively than the lint. In wet seasons this depreciation 
amounts to a large percentage of the value of the seed, and 
the products from such damaged seed must be sold for very 



THE GREAT 

40 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

inferior uses. The value of the oil shipped depends upon 
the condition of the seed when it reaches the mill. Evi- 
dently the products manufactured from cottonseed would 
be more useful and valuable if they were carefully handled 
and the good and bad seed kept separate. To accomplish 
this the co-operation of the grower, ginner and miller is 
required." 

A seed crop worth one hundred million dollars to the 
South, and which if it were all converted into cottonseed 
products would add more than another hundred million 
dollars to the value of the manufactured products of the 
South, is worth saving and is worth your most serious con- 
sideration. 

r The establishment of oil mills in Georgia has made the 
value of your seed crop this year equal to the cost of all .the 
commercial fertilizers used by you under all of the crops 
planted in Georgia of every kind and character, while the 
excess over the cost of fertilizers will pay the cost of gin- 

i ning and packing the cotton crop ; or the value of the seed 
crop will pay all the cost of picking your cotton and gin- 

/ ning it, including the cost of the bagging ; or it will pay the 
cost of the fertilizer and the ginning and packing of the 
cotton crop of the State. The mills further add to this 
magnificent sum by converting the seed into edible oil rival- 
ing the famous olive oil of Europe; and by transforming 
this oil into products as useful and more wholesome than 
any animal fat, and still further increase these values by 
manufacturing from the seed a stock food exceeding in 
feeding value all other known feeding materials. 

They also encourage the dairy interests of the South and 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 41 

OF THE SOUTH 

will eventual y create a great cattle industry, followed by 
the establishment of packing-houses. 

Does not this increase in value of Georgia productions 
and the uses to which these products are put convince you 
of the great waste of wealth when any of the seed not 
needed for planting are used for any other purpose than 
milling? And does it not further convince you that you 
should co-operate with the mills in improving the quality 
of rhe seed by better care and handling and by using exten- 
sively the products from the seed ? 

When you are tempted to use cotonseed for feeding stock 
or for fertilizing the land you should remember that in 
every bushel of seed used you are absolutely throwing away 
about two-thirds of a gallon of the best oil known to the 
woi^ld. When you feed seed to cattle, even the finest Jersey 
ever bred, it is like "casting pearls before swine." Fertiliz- 
ing the land with it no crop ever grown not even our 
"King Cotton," or his royal brother, held sacred and wor- 
shipped by the Hindus would countenance, because of the 
wanton waste of such splendid material. 

Mr. Edward Lehman Johnson, of Memphis, Tenn., who 
has had many years of experience in operating oil mills 
and who is a well known writer on this subject, estimates 
that the damage to the cottonseed crop of the South an- 
nally is about ten million dollars, due almost entirely, 
except in very bad seasons, to the careless and negligent 
methods of handling these seeds at the ginneries and on the 
farms. 

If the mills should use some of the seed shipped them in 
making oil this oil would have no better flavor or taste 



THE GREAT 

42 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

than the olive oil made from fruit that matures early and 
drops from the trees, and which a writer describes as "de- 
testable." 

The average seed received from the mills is of almost 
every known variety and contains a certain amount of 
immature bolls, trash and other foreign matter. Our 
Athens manager once sent me several rifle cartridges taken 
from the seed by the cleaning machinery. Improved clean- 
ing machinery extracts from the seed a large amount of 
similar substances, including nails, bolts, screws, keys and 
rocks. All this adds to the weight of the seed and costs 
the mill as much money as the seed itself, but does not 
yield oil or meal and, consequently, is valueless to the mills 

Hundreds of tons of seed are lost every year by the 
loose way in which seed are scattered around the ginneries 
and seed houses. Claims for shortage in weights are often 
made on the mills by shippers who waste the seed in this 
manner. Sometimes the farmers who haul the seed to the 
mill and the shippers mix the good seed with the bad; the 
mills, of course, grade all such seed as bad, as the products 
from such seed can only be used for such purposes as in- 
ferior seed will produce. A small amount of such off- 
quality seed depreciates the entire shipment. 

At a meeting of the Interstate Cottonseed Crushers' Asso- 
ciation, held in Atlanta about two years ago, Mr. E. Van 
Winkle, of Atlanta, a well-known manufacturer of oil mill 
machinery, suggested to the convention that a standard for 
seed should be established and all shipments graded on the 
same plan as wheat, corn, oats and other grains then desig- 
nated and that all shipments should be graded up or down 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 43 

OF THE SOUTH 

from this standard. Certainly, such a plan would be fair 
and just to all parties. But nothing was done at that time, 
as it was thought best to interest the farmers themselves in 
this matter. If you farmers will consider and discuss it in 
your various organizations you will bring about an im- 
provement much quicker than it is possible for the mills 
to accomplish. 

The invisible loss in milling cottonseed varies from five 
to ten per cent., clue very largely to the quality of the seed 
and the foreign substances mixed with it. Even when all 
the seed are sound some are not fully matured and also 
contain a large percentage of motes, bolls, trash, etc., which 
have to be separated from the seed before the seed are 
crushed, and is a total loss to the mills. This waste costs \ 
the mills as much money as the perfect seed. 

So far as I know, there has never been any investigation 
to determine the effect of soil, climate, fertilization or culti- 
vation on the value of cottonseed for milling purposes. 
Doubtless this Avill come with the progress of the cotton oil 
industry. In the meantime, the mills have been governed 
in their estimate of the value of the seed by the different^ 
varieties grown and by the results of chemical analyses of 
such varieties and the actual yield of products obtained 
in milling. In referring to analyses you must bear in 
mind that the chemist uses only one hundred seed in 
making each test, and that there is over six million in a 
ton, consequently, analyses are only approximately correct 
and answer only for comparisons. 

These analytical and practical tests of seed have shown ( 
that the black varieties, practically free from fiber, give 



r 



THE GREAT 

44 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

the highest yield of oil and meal. This larger percentage 
of oil is due to some extent to the fact that the seed do 
not contain any lint and are almost entirely free from any 
foreign matter. 

The green seed show by analyses and tests as second in 
T alue to the black seed for milling purposes, and the white 
varieties give the lowest results in yields of products. 

The quantity of oil available by the best milling 
processes is only about eighty per cent, of the quantity 
shown by analyses to be in the seed, while ordinary milling 
processes produced even smaller yield. This must be con- 
sidered in connection with the analyses. 

This is a sample of Sea Island seed, used in Georgia by the 
coast mills in the section where this variety is grown. 
These seed contain by analysis about twenty-two and one- 
half per cent, oil, about thirty per cent, of protein, or about 
6 per cent, ammonia. 

This is a sample of what is known as the Peterkin, a 
hybrid black variety, almost entirely free from fiber. 
These seed are now grown in all parts of the State and 
almost every shipment contains some of them. In some 
sections of the State a very large percentage of the total 
receipts at the mills are of this variety. Analyses show 
that they contain about twenty-two and one-half per cent, 
of oil and about twenty-one per cent, of protein, or four per 
cent, ammonia. 

This is a typical sample of green seed and contains about 
twenty-two and one-half per cent, of oil and about eighteen 
per cent, of protein or eight and one-half per cent, of 
ammonia. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 45 

OF THE SOUTH 

This sample represents the best type of the white variety, 
planted most extensively in Georgia. It contains only 
about eighteen and three-quarters per cent, of oil and 
seventeen and one-half per cent, of protein, or three and 
one-quarter per cent, ammonia. 

None of the varieties, except Sea Island come to the mills 
free from trash. 

This type represents an average sample as the seed are 
received at the mills. They are mixed with all varieties, 
consequently sometimes show a larger amount of oil than 
white seed because of the large percentage of black and 
green varieties mixed with them. Average seed like these 
will show about twenty-one per cent, of oil, eighteen per 
cent, protein, or three and one-half per cent, ammonia after 
being cleaned of trash and foreign substances. 

Some recent examinations of seed representing samples 
from all parts of the State show about thirteen per cent, 
black, about sixty-nine per cent, white and eighteen per 
cent, green. 

These comments on the different varieties are based on 
good, sound, dry seed. Slightly damaged seed sometimes 
contain as large a percentage of the niotes arid kernels as 
sound seed, but if badly damaged the kernels will weigh 
only a small proportion of the amount of the kernels in 
sound seed ; but in both cases the oil is unfit for use except 
in the soap kettle, and the meal is fit only for fertilizer 
purposes. 

This is a sample of trash, etc.. separated from the seed 
before milling. 

I show you here a sample of sound and damaged seed 



THE GREAT 

46 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

and of prime oil and meal made from the good seed and 
similar samples of oil and meal made from damaged seed. 
You can readily see the difference. 

The refining loss on oil made from good, sweet seed is 
* usually between five and six per cent. On oil made from 
damaged seed this loss will run from ten to thirty per cent., 
or even higher, showing the annual loss to the mills from 
seed not carefully handled. The oil made from sweet seed 
is a perfectly edible product; Avhen made from damaged 
seed its color and flavor are depreciated and it is used only 
for inferior purposes. 

The damage to seed results from excessive moisture and 
from exposure to the weather of the seed cotton or the seed, 
and from germination when stored in houses where the heat 
from large piles of seed produces germination. Sometimes 
in parts of the State cotton is picked and piled in the fields 
and then left for days and even Aveeks during the rainy 
weather. Consequently, th'e mills in that section rarely 
ever make prime oil. Of course, the seed heat and are 
often badly damaged before the cotton is ginned. In a 
recent investigation I found that in one section of the 
State, where the conditions mentioned prevail, over thirty 
per cent, of the seed w r ere badly damaged and all of them 
more or less damaged, while the average amount of damage 
for the entire State did not exceed six per cent, 

To prevent damage to seed requires only the exercise of 
ordinary business intelligence. The seed cotton should 
never be allowed to lie out in the field. If the farmer is not 
prepared to gin it when picked he should at least not allow 
it to be exposed to the weather. But if the seed cotton is 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 47 

OF THE SOUTH 

stored under shelter the pile should be opened often and 
exposed to sunlight in order that the moisure may be dried 
out. This is especialiy true of the early picked cotton, bufr 
really applies to all. The seed should never be stored in 
great piles in warm houses when moisture is created ana, 
heating and damage follow, and, of course, they should 
never be left without shelter in rainy weather. Whenever 
stored they should be opened to the sunlight often. A few 
simple precautions of this sort would result in the saving 
of thousands of tons of seed that are wasted every year. I 
think some of my farmer friends may say that such seed are 
not wasted because they are used for fertilizer, but in com- 
parison to the value of the seed for milling purposes I must 
contend that they are wasted. In some parts of the South 
where they do not use fertilizers the damaged seed are en- 
tirely and absolutely wasted. 

In order to impress upon you the necessity for properly 
handling your cottonseed, in your interest as well as that 
of the oil mills, and to give you some idea of the importance 
of the great cottonseed crushing industry, I will show you 
samples of the products that are made from the seed. 

To convert the seed into these products over one hun- \ 
dred million dollars is invested in the United States alone, 
in over eight hundred establishments, employing possibly 
forty thousand men; these various establishments are 
located in all parts of the Union, and many others in various t 
parts of the European countries. These industries have 
increased the foreign trade of the United States over thirty 
million dollars annually, by the export of cottonseed prod- 

i 

ucts, adding to the golden stream constantly crossing, the 



THE GREAT 

48 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

waters to move the cotton crop of the South, thus aiding 
/4nd keeping the balance of trade between the United States 
/and Europe in favor of our country, which last year ex- 
/ ceeded half a billion dollars. To these magnificent results 
you farmers of the South are contributing enormously, in- 
asmuch as the value of your cotton crop alone is equal to 
the balance of trade in favor of the United States. 

Beginning with what is known as crude mill products we 
nave crude oil, prime quality, made from prime seed; crude 
/ oil, off quality, made from off-quality seed; cottonseed 
meai, made from prime seed ; cottonseed meal, made from 
off-quality or damaged seed; cottonseed hulls; cottonseed 
li liters. 

You will note the difference between the prime and off- 
quality in these products, due to the quality of the seed 
from which they are produced. 

This crude oil when of sufficiently high quality is con- 
verted into edible oils after undergoing refining processes. 

I 



The off oil is likewise refined, but is used for other than 



edible purposes. The cottonseed meal, as you all know, is 
used for stock feed and for mixing with fertilizers. Cotton- 
seed hulls are also used for stock feed. It has been demon- 
Strated, too, that these hulls can be converted into a pulp 
or the manufacture of rough paper. The linters are used 
n the manufacture of mattresses, quilts, pillows and va- 
rious other purposes for which short fibre may be utilized. 
I also call to your attention this sample of commercial 
* fertilizer ammoniated with cottonseed meal. I have also 
here type samples of mattresses, quilts, etc., manufactured 
/ from linters. An important use made of linters is in the 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 49 

OF THE SOUTH 

manufacture of gun cotton, a highly explosive substance 
used for all purposes where explosives are needed. 

Going back to the uses for prime crude oil, I wish to ex- 
plain to you that this is refined into what is known as prime 
summer yellow oil, like this sample. In the refining pro-f 
cess the refuse is known as "soap stock," like this sample 
and which is used in the manufacture of both toilet and' 
laundry soaps. The prime summer yellow oil itself, which ' 
can only be made from good seed, is then converted into va- 
rious edible products, samples of which I will show you as 
follows: Salad oil, cooking oil. lard compounds, and but-) 
terine and oleomargarine, which, as you will observe, are( 
most excellent substitutes for butter. 

In the highest grades of what are known to the trade as 
lard compounds, about 'ninety-nine per cent, of the com- 
pound is pure cottonseed oil, the balance is usually oleo 
stearine, or beef tallow. A new use for the highest grade re/ 
fined oils is in ice cream. I am sorry conditions prevent my 
showing you a sample of that, but it has been successfully 
and satisfactorily used for this purpose. The soap stock isj 
used, as previously explained, in the manufacture of toilet* 
and laundi^y soap, such as these samples. 

The best grade of cottonseed oil is now used also for me- . 
dicinal purposes, thus giving to it the highest possible in- 
dorsement. Dr. George Brown, of Atlanta, has manufac- 
tured and placed on the market an emulsion of cottonseed ( 
oil, like this sample, which is used as a substitute for cod- 
liver oil. He assured me that it is far superior to codliver 
oil in the treatment of cases wherever that oil has been 
used. He states that the majority of people who need cod- 



THE GREAT 

50 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

liver oil most are unable to take it because they could not 
digest it, besides, the taste and flavor are objectionable, 
which is not the case with cottonseed oil, which is palat- 
able. He says he has never yet seen a patient whose 
stomach was so delicate that he could not thoroughly digest 
cottonseed oil. 

In order to give you a further idea of the quality of the 
products made from the seed, I show you here a sample of 
high-grade cottonseed oil and alongside of it a sample of 
absolutely pure olive oil, which the world has for genera- 
tions considered the best of edible oils. This grade of 
cottonseed oil is equally as good as any olive oil, only we 
have not idealized it as the growers of olive oil have done. 
Olive oil, therefore, is preferred by some people only be- 
cause of its longer use and because in certain countries 
consumers have become more accustomed to it. 

It is almost impossible to detect the difference. So gen- 
erally was cottonseed oil accepted as olive oil that some 
years ago it was reported that the olive growers of Califor- 
nia petitioned Congress, or through their representative, 
endeavored to pass a law taxing cottonseed oil heavily for 
the protection of the olive growers, and it was stated that 
one of the reasons given for this was that consumers were 
becoming so accustomed to the taste and flavor of cotton- 
seed oil that in a few years olive oil would be considered 
adulterated. 

Recently the Olive Growers' Association of California 
published a vicious attack on cottonseed oil. Sam Jones 
used to say that it was the "hit dog that howled." The 
animus of the California publication shows that somebody 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 51 

OF THE SOUTH 

has been hit and hit hard ; and it also shows that the manu- 
facturers of cottonseed oil must expect these sort of at-_ 
tacks and must hold up the product to its present high 
standard. The farmers can greatly help in this work by 
more careful handling of the seed, which insures to the con- 
sumer of oil a perfect product. 

In order that you may appreciate the production of cot- 
tonseed oil in comparison with other edible oils with which 
it competes, I will state that although the olive groves have 
existed since the time when the "mind of man runneth not 
to the contrary" while the manufacture of cottonseed oil|V 
is scarcely a generation old it now about equals the pro- 
duction of olive oil, amounting to probably three million 
barrels annually. The ground-nut, or, as we say in Georgia, 
"goober," production of oil averages about 250,000 barrels \ 
annually, and the Sesame yield about 225,000. In Spain 
the average yield of oil per acre is about twenty gallons. 

While the total olive crop of Europe is about the same as ^ 
the cottonseed oil crop, the olive crop as well as the other 
seed and nut crops, are about the same amount every year, 
showing very little increase. But even without an increase( 
in the acreage in cotton the prodiTction of cottonseed oil 
can be considerably increased by better selection of plant- 
ing seed and better care in the handling of the seed. 

In producing the cotton crop the Southern farmer f 
grows on the same land about half as much oil as the Span- ( 
ish olive grower and has, in addition, produced from the 
seed three other important products, all having valuable 
uses, viz., meal, hulls and linters. The value of the seed ' 
and products of cottonseed per acre is about equal to the 



THE GREAT 

52 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

, value per acre of the olive crop. The mills have, therefore, 
taken a by-product of cotton and with it alone increased the 
productive capacity of the cotton lands in the South by as 
much as the total productive capacity of the olive groves. 

It may interest you to know that during the worst part of 
the recent financial panic when European exchange even 
for cotton shipments, could not be negotiated, that the 
European buyers of cottonseed oil offered to send over 
gold to purchase seed with which to make the oil for their 
use. It would be difficult to find a higher estimate of the 
value of any product than this. 

Negotiations are now pending between France and the 
United States by which this country abates a part of its 
duty on champagne in consideration of an abatement by 
France of its maximum duties on cottonseed oil. This 
shows the high value placed on cottonseed by France, and 
incidentally, is interesting to Georgians in these prohibi- 
tion da#s. 

^To^urther develop the crude cottonseed oil industry it is 
'necessary for the mills to have the strongest possible co- 
operation of the farmers and producers of the seed. The 
margin of profit to the crude oil mill is very small. This 
can only be increased as higher values obtain for cottonseed 
products, when our own people, and especially our farmers, 
purchase and use more extensively the products of the 
crude mill. If they will do this they will put the crude oil 
mills on a solid financial foundation and at the same time 
greatly benefit themselves, not only by enabling the mills to 
pay higher prices for seed, but by getting better products 
than they are now doing. This consumption has greatly 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 53 

OF THE SOUTH 

increased within the last few years, but there is room for 
further increase, and with the assistance of the farmers 
who produce the seed the crude mills will be largely inde- 
pendent of speculative markets for oil which tend to the 
depreciation of this most valuable product. 

You have been told time and again about the magnifi- 
cence of the cotton crop and will be told again, but no mat- 
ter how often the same old story is told it is as true as the 
first time it was stated. 

When five hundred pounds of wheat crosses the water it I 
sends back to America only about ten dollars in gold. But/ 
whenever five hundred pounds of cotton crosses the ocean 
it sends back to us about sixty dollars of European gold/ 
It is not surprising, therefore, that when the business men 
and manufacturers of the country needed gold so badly in 
the decent panic they kept insisting that financial condi- 
tions Avould not improve until cotton moved. 

You clothe with cotton a greater part of the world's pop- 
ulation than is clothed with any other fibre, and with your 
cottonseed products you are contributing largely to the 
support of the population. 

The manufacturers of automobiles have shown you how \ 
to make horseless carriages and I have endeavored to show 
you how to make edible oil without olives; medicinal oil j 
without codfish ; butter without cows ; ice cream without 
cream; lard without hogs; fertilizers without blood; mat- 
tresses without hair; stock feed without corn or oats and 
explosives without powder, and this has all been done by 
producing as good or better articles than the originals, and 
it has all been accomplished with the little seed grown by 
you on the hillsides and in the valleys of old Georgia. 



THE GREAT 

54 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER III. 
THE DAIRY AND OIL MILL INTERESTS. 

(Address before the Georgia Dairy Association, Griffin, 

Ga.) 

HOW THE OIL MILL HAS BENEFITTED THE DAIRY INTERESTS 
AND CATTLE RAISING INDUSTRY HOW THESE COMBINED 
INTERESTS MAY BE FURTHER PROMOTED BY CLOSER RE- 
LATIONS. 

My friend, Professor Willoughby, invited me to talk to 
you not longer than twenty minutes on the subject "The Re- 
lations of Livestock Owners and Dairymen to Oil Mills." 
I could talk to you twenty days on the oil mill end of the 
proposition, but if confined to livestock and dairying I am 
sure I could tell you all I know in twenty seconds. 

1 belong to that crowd described by Colonel Starke, of 
Mississippi, as being "too poor to keep a cow and too proud 
to milk a goat." The nearest I ever came to being a stock 
raiser or dairyman was when I used to hold the calf off for 
some one else to do the milking, and then the calf didn't 
seem to think that I was doing much toward his raising. 
But this has been so many years ago that I have almost 
forgotten what a cow looks like. 

Most, if not all, of you livestock breeders and dairymen 
are farmers also. Perhaps I know just a little more about 
farming than about raising livestock. For ten years I was 
Secretary of the South Carolina Department of Agricul- 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



55 




Cartoon, ''Getting Together." 



THE GREAT 

56 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

ture, during which time i studied agriculture as closely 
and as thoroughly as my clerical duties would permit. 
When I graduated from that department and went into oil 
milling I had learned enough about farming to know how 
many tax tags it required for a ton of guano. All that I 
have learned about farming since then is that cottonseed 
meal ammoniated fertilizers are the best for Georgia soils 
and Georgia crops. Notwithstanding my ignorance about 
stock raising and farming, I hope in the time allowed me 
to show you that our relationship is a very close one that 
we have so many interests in common that we can trace our 
relationship without the aid of a pedigree. 

We believe that the oil mills by producing the best stock 
feed ever made, dairying and stock raising in the South 
will be possible and we hope profitable. These products 
have placed the live stock interests of the South on a plane 
with the live stock interests of the West. By using cotton- 
seed meal and hulls you have helped the mills. We are 
more or less dependent on you and you are partly depend- 
ent on us. When a live stock raiser or a dairyman is a 
farmer also it is always to his interest to exchange his seed 
with the mills for meal and hulls. The mills are always 
anxious to do this and by such exchanges both parties are 
benefitted. These exchanges can be made on a basis of 
pounds or on the cash values of seed and meal and hulls at 
the time of the exchange. 

A pamphlet recently published by the National Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, gives the result of experiments in the 
use of raw seed and meal in fertilizing land, which shows 
that it is a great deal better to use the meal than the seed 



THE QREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 57 

OF THE SOUTH 

for this purpose. Comparatively few seed are fed to cattle 
and in most cases this is only when the seed are too far 
from railroads to be hauled. I believe it is pretty well es- 
tablished that the meal and hulls as a feed for stock are far 
superior to the raw or cooked whole seed. 

I assume, of course, you all know that cottonseed meal 
and hulls make the best stock feed in the world, but it may 
not be improper for me to tell you something about what 
other people think of it. 

The government special agent, Mr. Ben ton, appointed 
from Georgia to travel through the Netherlands, Denmark 
and other European countries, reported that at every point 
visited he found cottonseed meal in high favor with all 
stock raisers of those countries. 

At the famous Tri folium dairy in Denmark, 15,000 head 
of milk cows are fed on cottonseed meal. In all parts of 
the South and throughout New England cottonseed meal 
is the most popular of all dairy foods, and in actual feed- 
ing value it stands at the head of all American feed stuffs. 

Judge Hammond, of Augusta, has demonstrated that 
when properly used it is the best feed for horses ; while Mr. 
Allison, of Texas, has proven beyond question its great 
value for fattening pigs. 

Danish bacon, famous all over Europe for its delicacy of 
flavor, is said to be mad^ from hogs fattened on cottonseed 
meal. It seems, therefore, that as a feed for all animals 
this product has proven entirely satisfactory. 

In the South we are fortunate in having cottonseed hulls, 
which the other countries have not, and which, when added 
to the meal in proper proportions, makes a complete ration. 



THE GREAT 

58 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

I cannot impress upon you too strongly the fact that the 
/interests of the stock raisers, dairymen, farmers and oil 
mills are mutual. As a matter of fact the mills work largely 
on a toll basis, just as the corn mills do. They figure on 
the cost of seed, cost of working and the value of the prod- 
ucts, leaving a margin for reasonable profits. Sometimes 
they have obtained these profits and sometimes not. But 
during the operating season they try to make such a differ- 
ence between the cost of the seed worked up and the value 
of the finished product as to give them only a fair profit. 
As the greater part of the dairy products and beef cattle of 
the South are consumed at home the two interests should 
in every possible way work together. 

In a recent conference with representatives of the South- 
ern Cotton Growers' Association the values of seed were 
discussed with representatives of the Interstate Cotton- 
seed Crushers' Association. The quality of the seed from 
North Carolina to Texas was considered along with the 
yields, cost of working, freight rates, quality of the prod- 
ucts and other matters of the same kind, and it was unani- 
mously decided that owing to the varied conditions in the 
different sections of the State that no definite value could 
be fixed on seed so far as the oil mills are concerned. But 
the representatives of the Southern Cotton Growers' Asso- 
ciation recognizing the importance to the farmer of in- 
creasing the value of cottonseed products decided that they 
would advocate personally and through their association 
an increased use of all cottonseed products by the farmers 
themselves, substituting entirely cottonseed oil and com- 
pounds made from it for hogs' lard and meal and hulls for 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 59 

OF THE SOUTH 

wheat bran, corn meal, hay and other products hauled from 
the West. 

The total production of seed in the South on a basis of 
13,000,000 bale cotton crop is approximately 6,500,000 tons. 
If 3,000,000 tons are used for all other purposes it will 
leave about 3,500,000 tons for crushing. If the products 
from these seed were used at home it would increase the 
dairy business and cattle raising, which would be followed 




Six Horses and a Mule, Which Get a Daily Ration of Cottonseed 

Meal. 

by the establishment of packing houses, adding another 
great industry to this section. When all cottonseed prod- 
ucts are used in the South, as will be done some time, it 
will increase the commercial value of cottonseed and con- 
sequently add largely to the value of the cotton crop. 

We are now exporting to Europe about one-third of the 
production of cottonseed nieal and one-third of the cotton- 
seed oil produced, and we ought not to export a single J 
pound of meal or a single gallon of oil. 



THE GREAT 

60 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

Some years ago there was a flourishing industry in the 
United States in which the dairymen and the oil mills were 
mutually interested, but which through national laws has 
practically been wiped out of existence. This was the manu- 
facture of oleomargarine. For this product you furnished 
the milk and the oil mills furnished the oil. You prob- 
ably feel about oleomargarine as the South Carolina editor 
did who said it was a "horrible thought to him that as good 
butter could be made out of the fat of a steer as from the 
milk of the most beautiful Jersey in the South. 7 ' That was 
sentiment with him, but with the oil mills and the dairymen 
it is a business proposition. So far as I know there is no 
movement on foot to repeal the oleomargarine laws, but it 
may be well for our dairymen to consider whether or not 
the repeal of these laws might not be beneficial to them in- 
stead of harmful. There is no question about the purity 
and wholesomeness of oleomargarine when properly manu- 
factured. It furnishes a good substitute for butter at a 
price within the reach of the poorest people and is good 
enough for the richest. By the use of cottonseed meal and 
hulls and by such produce as is raised on the farms there is 
no question about the ability of our dairies to produce large 
quantities of milk at a reasonable cost. 

There seems to be some question about whether or not 
the manufacture of butter at our dairies is profitable. In 
the manufacture of oleomargarine sixty per cent, of the 
weight is milk, the balance is cottonseed oil and beef stear- 
inc. The establishment of an oleomargarine factory at 
some central point would give an enormous demand for 
milk which necessarily would increase its value. Would it 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



61 



1 



be better for you to sell milk and create a large demand for 
it at better prices than you are now getting, or to manu- 
facture butter? 

Holland is the largest butter making country in the\ 
world. Holland also takes the largest amount of cotton- [ 
seed oil exported from America. That country is also the 
largest manufacturer of oleomargarine. As far as I know 
(here is no antagonism between the butter makers of Hol- 
land and the manufacturers of oleomargarine ; they appar- 
ently work together for their mutual interests, and the 
dairymen do not object to the oleomargarine factories 
which consume large quantities of milk. If that country 




Colt Three Hours Old; Dam Fed on Cottonseed Meal Regularly. 



^ THE GREAT 

62 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

can import from America $4,000,000 worth of cottonseed 
oil annually and make a profit on it, it seems that we 
should in this country utilize that oil and keep the profit at 
home. It is plain that one pound of pure odorless cotton- 
seed oil added to three gallons of milk in the churn will 
produce from one pound to one and one-fourth pounds of 
butter as pure, as sweet and as delicious as the best Jersey 
butter ever made. But, under the oleomargarine laws the 
sale of such product is prohibited. If oleomargarine was 
unwholesome there would be absolutely no argument in its 
favor and its manufacture should be prohibited, even if it 
was a great benefit to the dairymen or to the oil mills if it 
was manufactured. But there is no question about its 
wholesomeness and it is certainly the best substitute for 
butter ever discovered. 

A gentleman said to me some time ago that as the West- 
ern butter makers realized that they can increase their but- 
ter production by the use of oil costing from 5^ to 6 cents 
per pound and sell it for 25 to 30 cents per pound they 
would be the first to advocate a repeal of the law which 
through their influence was enacted by Congress and which 
practically destroyed the oleomargarine industry in this 
country. 

I have already consumed more than twenty minutes of 
the time which I promised to talk to you, and only wish 
to say in conclusion that I appreciate this opportunity of 
advising with you and I am mighty glad to be with you. 
You all look happy, rich and prosperous and I am sure that 
much of your prosperity, wealth and happiness is due to the 
free use you have made of cottonseed products. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 63 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER IV. 

GEORGIA PEOPLE BUY COTTON OIL IN PREFERENCE TO HOGS' 

LARD, 

THE SUPERIORITY OF COTTON OIL OVER LARD. 

They were discussing in the Piedmont lobby the big corn 
and hog crop of the West and finally got on the relative 
value and purity of vegetable 6ils and animal fats. One 
Western man had said a great deal about the big corn crop 
and the thousands of fat hogs that it would make and how 
his firm expected to supply the cotton growers of the South 
with lard this year. He was rather sorry for the Georgians 
because they did not have more hogs, but glad on his own 
account, as the South would give his firm a market for their 
surplus product. 

A cotton oil man. sitting in the group, observed that he 
thought the South was raising its own lard this year in the 
shape of cotton oil. The Westerner replied: "They will 
never use it. There is too much prejudice against it right 
here where you raise it." The oil man answered : "Preju- 
dice ! Prejudice against a pure vegetable product ! Preju- ' 
dice against one of the most delicious of nature's products ! J 
Why, do you know how completely and delicately nature/ 
has provided for the care of the oil in the cotton seed? In 
every seed are thousands of oil cells, each containing a tiny 
sack holding an almost infinitesimal globule of oil. These 
little sacks are elastic, prevent evaporation and make it im- 



THE GREAT 

64 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

possible for the precious liquid to become contaminated by 
contact with any other substance. All of these little cells 
are then completely encased in the kernel of the seed, and 
all safely housed and covered tightly with a hard shell im- 
pervious to rain, hail, sunshine, disease or insects. So care- 
fully protected by nature is the oil that it can only be re- 
i eased by heat and pressure. When ready for market it is 
pure, sweet, wholesome, almost snow white, and of delight- 
ful flavor. The mills are selling it to consumers, who bring 
their seed to the mills and carry back refined oil. 

"If there is anyone in Georgia so lacking in good judg- 
ment and good taste as to prefer animal fat of any kind to 
cotton oil, such a citizen must live a long ways from the 
public road, and if anyone still talks about prejudice 
against cotton oil, he is simply making himself ridiculous. 

"When Georgia grows 2,000,000 bales of cotton in a 
single year and becomes the second largest cotton produc- 
ing State in the South, her people would not be showing 
the sound judgment that has made Georgia the Empire 
State of the South if they did not consume their own prod- 
ucts in preference to those produced elsewhere, particu- 
larly where they are so far superior to the imported 
article." 

The argument seemed to be exhausted and the discussion 
drifted on to crops and politics. Atlanta Constitution, 
September 24, 1905. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 65 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER V. 

A REVIEW OF THE PROGRESS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COT- 
TON OIL INDUSTRY. 

NEGLECTED OPPORTUNITIES A SOUTHERN MONOPOLY A 

GROWTH AS SENSATIONAL AS THE CALIFORNIA GOLD DIS- 
COVERY OF '49 THE VALUE OF THE BY-PRODUCTS TO THE 
SOUTHERN CATTLE RAISER AND DALRYMEN. 

"If the United States had, tAventy or twenty-five years 
ago, followed up the admissions of European olive oil ex- 
perts, that they could not detect one-third cottonseed oil 
in their best olive oil and pushed the matter to its just con- 
clusion, viz: That cottonseed oil was as pure and whole- 
some although in itself lacking the peculiar flavor of olive , 
oil as the best olive oil, the United States would not to- 
day be able to meet the foreign demand which would have 
been created therefor." 

"The fact that Germany, Denmark and the United King- 
dom import over $12,000,000 worth of United States cot- ( 
tonseed oil cake is evidence enough as to its worth, for they 
are the expert cattle feeders of the world.' 7 

The two paragraphs quoted above are from the Daily 
Consular and Trade Reports of the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, October 9, 1906, and no 
other evidence is needed to prove the value of these two 
chief products of the cottonseed industry of the South, nor 
is further evidence needed regarding the importance of the 



THE GREAT 

66 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

foreign trade in these two products, except to state the act- 
ual figures as shown by the same report. 

The total value of the oil exported for the year ending- 
June 30, 1905, was $13,673,400; lard substitutes (com- 
pounded with cottonseed oil), $4,154,200. The exports of 
cottonseed oil cake amounted in value to f 13,073,400, and 
of linters to f 1,433,925, making the total exports of cotton- 
seed products, exclusive of the oil exported in oleomar- 
garine, 132,334,925. 

It may be some time before the South monopolizes cot- 
ton manufacture, but natural conditions, followed by me- 
chanical ingenuity and commercial activity have already 
established a monopoly in the South in the manufacture of 
high grade cottonseed products. 

The cottonseed industry of the South is unique, because 
it is "alone of its kind," especially when the diversified in- 
terests concerned in it are considered. 

Its history is interesting; its development as sensational 
as the California gold discovery of '49. Its only set back 
and the greatest financial danger it has encountered thus 
far, has been its too rapid growth, production running 
ahead of consumption, and crushing capacity exceeding the 
supply of the raw material, at prices that the producers 
could pay for seed on the market value for the oil, and this 
danger might have been averted, as has been shown, if those 
interested in it twenty years ago had made the proper ef- 
forifat that time to push the sale and use of the oil in for- 
eign countries. 

So rapid was the increase in the number of crude mills in 
a few years that refiners did not find markets for the fin- 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



67 



ished products, cooking oils and compounds, as fast as the 
production of crude oil increased; consequently, the niiljls 
were forced to depend largely on the limited number of 
European buyers to take their surplus refined oil, and these 
buyers knew well how to buy on congested markets. This 




Cargo of Cottonseed Meal Fertilisers on Chattahoochee River. 

has resulted in some years in serious loss to the entire in- 
dustry, refiners and manufacturers of crude oil as well. 
This condition seems to have passed, at least it has im- 
proved, and while the profits have averaged less than the 
average profits of other manufacturing establishments, par- 
ticularly in recent years, more stable conditions seem to 
have been reached, and better, broader and sounder judg- 
ment displayed in the handling of the business. 

Until about six years ago the producers of crude oil de- 
pended largely on Eastern and Western refiners for their 




THE GREAT 

68 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

markets. About half of the oil was then, 1900, exported 
after being refined, out of a total estimated production of 
1,500,000 barrels. In 1900 a large number of crude oil 
mills were purchased by Southern- refiners, and then fol- 
lowed tvii increased production of the finished products and 
an increased domestic and home use of the products. In 
1905 only about one-third of the oil was exported against 
one-half in 1900, although the total estimated production 
had increased to about 3,000,000 barrels, making the do- 
mestic consumption about 2,000,000 barrels against 900,000 
barrels in 1900, thus doubling the home demand for it. This 
increase* in the home use of oil gave a tremendous impulse 
to the manufacture of crude oil and in the two years fol- 
lowing the number of mills in the South almost doubled. 

The increased use of the oil by Southern manufacturers 
of finished products strengthened both foreign and domes- 
tic demands for it, the development running on much the 
same lilies as the result following the increased manufac- 
ture of cotton by Southern factories. It has been further 
helped by the general prosperity of the country in all lines 
of manufacture, the improvement in agricultural condi- 
tions, and the better buying ability of the people generally. 
If the mistakes of the past are not repeated, if production is 
allowed to run parallel with consumption, the demand for 
all cottonseed products will soon enhance the values and 
the industry will enjoy the same degree of prosperity that 
has come to all other similar enterprises. 

The products of this industry compete with the olive 
growers of Italy, Spain and France, with the producers of 
copra of the Pacific islands, with the cocoanut, peanut and 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 69 

OF THE SOUTH 

sesame oil manufacturers of Europe, with the packers of 
the world, with the butter makers of Europe, Avith_the 
Western growers of corn and hay, with the hog raisers or 
the same section, and, in a limited way, with the European 
growers of low grade cotton and cotton factory waste. They 
also compete with the manufacturers of soap of all kinds, 
wherever located. Not only do the products of the cotton- 
seed mills and refineries compete in foreign markets with 
the commodities mentioned produced in those sections, but 
they also are forced to meet the competition of American 
manufacturers and producers of similar commodities in 
foreign and domestic markets. It is not surprising, there-| 
fore, that the development of this industry has been re- 
tarded because it met with so much opposition from so 
.many different and conflicting interests. 

The Interstate Cottonseed Crushers' Association, 
through its publicity bureau, is trying to correct the mis- 
takes and injury done the industry twenty-five years ago, 
by failure to take advantage of foreign markets, as ex- 
plained in the consular reports referred to, by more fully 
advertising these products and thus creating a greater de- 
mand abroad and at home, which would already have ex- 
isted if the proper course had been followed by those con- 
trolling the industry in its early history. In this work the 
publicity committee is receiving the cordial co-operation 
of the Bureau of Manufacturers, Department of Commerce 
and Labor at Washington, D. C., the assistance of the trade 
journals and the newspapers generally throughout t 
United States and of the members of the association. It is 
believed that a better knowledge of the value of these prod- 



THE GREAT 

70 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

nets will not only increase the demand, but will result in 
more remunerative prices to both refiners and crude oil 
mills. 

A recent report of the Bureau of Statistics, Department 

( I of Commerce and Labor, says : "The value of cottonseed oil 

las a food product was not known in the early days of its 

manufacture. In 1881 it was discovered that cottonseed oil 

mixed with animal fats made an acceptable substitute for 



ird. From that time the domestic demand greatly in- 



creased. In 1880 about thirty per cent, of the cottonseed 
oil manufactured in the United States was consumed at 
home, while in 1905 it amounted to sixty per cent." 

It has also been "discovered" that the oil in its natural 
state is a satisfactory substitute for lard and other animal 
fats. The demand for it as a cooking commodity is increas- 
ing daily. Its purity and wholesomeness is attested by the 
chemists, and practical experience supports the expert tes- 
timony. 

Kecently a great deal of interest has been aroused on ac- 
count of an address delivered by Professor Connell, on the 
value of cottonseed meal as a human food and competent 
authorities have announced that this is entirely practicable 
and that we may expect a large addition from this source 
to the food products of America. 

For one hundred and eighty years mills for crushing cot- 
tonseed have been operated in Europe, but the differences 
in the character of the products of these mills and those of 
the South are almost as great as the differences between 
woolen and cotton goods. 

In the South the seed are worked directly from the fields ; 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 71 

OF THE SOUTH 

in Europe they are transported from Egypt and America, 
reaching the mills many months after shipment. The prod- 
ucts are necessarily inferior to those of Southern mills. 
The manufacturing methods, too, are not the same. In 
China, for possibly two thousand years, oil has been ex- 
pressed from cottonseed, and is still produced by primitive 




f 



Exterior View of Large Cotton Oil Refinery. 

processes, consequently it also is far inferior to the South- 
ern product. 

The Southern industry is, therefore, unique in that it / 
"stands alone" in its methods of manufacture and in the 
quality of its product. It is just as complete a monopoly 
of its kind as the American production of Sea Island cotton. 
The feeding and fertilizing value of the meal produced in K 
the Southern mills is just about double that of the same 
commodity manufactured in the English mills. The world 
looks to America, therefore, for its high grade cottonseed 
oil and high grade cottonseed meal. But with all these ad- 
vantages the South does not derive the full benefit from the 



THE GREAT 

72 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

business, because a large part of the total annual pro- 
duction of the cake or meal goes to foreign markets, prob- 
ably half of the linters (short fibre) is also exported. The 
meal and hulls are needed for stock feed, in order to in- 
crease the number of beef cattle, milk cows and hogs in 
the South. In no other way can packing houses be so suc- 
cessfully established and the dairy products increased in 
this section as by the use of cottonseed meal and hulls. 
When all of the cake or meal and all of the linters are used 
where produced and that now seems probable in the near 
future the full benefit of the industry will be realized by 
the people who own it, and by those who grow the seed. 

The total production of cake or meal is about sufficient 
to feed more than 1,000,000 head of beef and dairy cattle 
the year round, while the hulls would supply roughage for 
250,000 cattle for one year. If 1,000,000 head of cattle were 
fed on the meal and hulls and the deficiency is roughage 
supplied by native grasses and hay, then the hulls and meal 
would supply 1,000,000 cattle for the entire year. As fat- 
tening cattle are usually kept for only about six months on 
food of this sort before being marketed, the supply of meal 
and hulls supplemented with native grasses and hay would 
supply 2,000,000 head of beef cattle for that time. Such a 
use of these products would create packing houses through- 
out the South and add another important industry to this 
section that would be of immense benefit to the whole 
people. 

All of the hulls are now fed in the South to beef and 
dairy cattle, but a large part of the meal is exported or 
used in the manufacture of commercial fertilizers. This 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



73 



partial loss to the South of the most valuable feed stuff 
produced in any country shows a lack of appreciation jind 
of enterprise that should not exist and will not continue 
many years, as the value of the meal for feeding purposes 
is better known each vear. 




Interior View of Large Cotton Oil Refinery. 

The industry has had to combat the prejudices of its own 
people and the opposition of every competitor in every mar- 
ket of the world. Sometimes the national government of its 
own country, and even the governments of its own States 
have been arrayed against it. The manufacturers of lard 
first opposed its chief product and were followed by the 
butter makers of the West, while the French, German, 



THE GREAT 

74 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

Austrian and Italian governments tried to prohibit by high 
tariffs, the sale ol ! the oil in their own countries, but seem 
to have succeeded only in increasing its use. In spite of 
prejudice, opposition and imposition at home and abroad, 
the high merits of cottonseed oil carried it through all these 
difficulties, and to-day the demand for it is better than at 
any time in its history; while the use of the meal and hulls 
has about doubled in six years. 

So the industry seems to have overcome all opposition 
triumphantly and has worthily won the world's reognition 
as one of the great manufacturing interests of the country, 
and wears its honors becomingly. 

In the further development of the industry the trend is 
southward where the cotton grows. Here the crude oil is 
produced, here it can be refined while it is sweet and pure, 
fresh from the fields and the seed. With the establishment 
of commercial exchanges in the leading Southern cities and 
the coming of immigrant ships direct to Southern ports, 
the trade with Europe will naturally come this way and 
this will lead foreign dealers and brokers to look to South- 
ern producers of finished products for their supplies. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 75 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER VI. 

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN COTTONSEED MILLS. 

COTTONSEED MEAL IN DENMARK AND THE UNITED STATES 
THE HIGH QUALITY OF AMERICAN COTTONSEED OIL THE 
VALUE OF VARIOUS AM.ERICAN FEED STUFFS, INCLUDING 
COTTONSEED MEAL AND HULLS. 

In England where cottonseed mills have been in operation / 
for one hundred and eighty years, they are known as cake 
mills because the cake is largely used for cattle feed, and is 
highly regarded by feeders for this purpose, large quan- 
tities being imported in addition to that produced at home, 
while in the South they are known as oil mills, because the 
oil lias been regarded as the most valuable product. The 
English cake, in feeding value, is worth only about sixty , 
per cent, of the American cake. The oil is also inferior to 
the American product, because the seed are crushed whole, 
all of the hulls going into the cake or meal, and the seed 
are brought from Egypt or America, consequently they are 
never sAveet and fresh like the seed worked straight from 
the cotton fields by the American mills. 

Although the English products are inferior to those pro- 
duced in the South, they sell for much higher prices be- 
cause their value is better understood and appreciated by 
the consumers. 

Last year the sunflower crop of Eussia was almost a 
failure. When this was realized the stock feeders in Den- 



THE GREAT 

76 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

mark, where large quantities of sunflower cake is used, en- 
tered the American markets for cottonseed cake, which they 
had been using in limited quantities previously. The Dan- 
ish buyers were followed shortly by the German and Eng- 
lish feeders, which caused a sharp advance in price, 
amounting to something over |5 per ton. Cottonseed meal 
landed in Denmark, including freight, insurance, brokers 
and jobbers 7 commissions and profits, probably cost the 
feeders $35 per ton, while the highest price it reached in the 
South in a retail way was $28 per ton, and only a small 
quantity sold at over $25 per ton. This export demand 
greatly assisted the mills in realizing a better price for cot- 
tonseed meal than had prevailed in many years. Indirectly 
it was a great benefit to the growers of seed, because it en- 
abled the mills to pay better prices for seed, but even at the 
price named, the meal sold at only about seventy per cent, 
of its actual feeding value in comparison with other feed 
stuffs. A product so valuable for feeding purposes should 
never be used any other way. If all of the cottonseed meal 
produced in the South was fed to cattle, it would result in 
making this section a cattle raising country, and would cre- 
ate a packing industry equal to that of the West. This has 
been demonstrated by an enterprising citizen of Atlanta, 
Ga., who started a few years ago feeding cattle in a limited 
way on cottonseed hulls and meal. Meeting with much suc- 
cess he established an extensive packing house, and now 
supplies a large part of the meat products consumed in this 
section. While cottonseed meal is the best commercial fer- 
tilizer ever produced, it is too valuable as a feed staff to be 
used for other purposes. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



77 



The oil is the most valuable of all of the products of the 
American mills. Its purity and wholesoineness recommend 
it for cooking purposes or for salads. It is more econom- 
ical than any animal fat, and, on account of its purity, is 
necessarily healthful. It is a vegetable product produced 
from a seed that is protected by nature from imperfections 




Interior Vieiv of Cotton Oil Hogless Lard Plant. 

of any kind, and is made entirely by machinery, while the 
seed are still fresh, sound and sweet, and is refined by the 
most approved methods. The United States Board of Of- 
ficial Chemists at Washington has classed it ivith olive oil 
without 'discrimination. The high-grade deodorized cook- 
ing oil, manufactured from fresh, sweet cottonseed, is odor- 



THE GREAT 

78 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

less, tasteless and practically colorless, and is produced 
without the aid or use of any injurious chemicals. One 
pound of oil. of this kind is equal to one and one-third 
pound of hog's lard for cooking purposes. 

Comparative statement of values of the various feeds ex- 
pressed in calories : 



Feed 
value, calo- 
Carbohy- ries per 


Protein. 


Fiber. 


drates. 


Fat. 


pound. 


Cottonseed meal. . . 


38.6 


6.0 


34.4 


8.0 


180*i 


Feed meal 


25.0 


20.0 


36.0 


6.0 


1760 


Brewers' grain .... 


19.9 


11.0 


51.7 


5.0 


1759 


Corn 


10.5 


2.1 


69.6 


5.4 


1756 


Cow peas 


16.6 


20.1 


42.2 


2.2 


1746 


Oats 


11.8 


9.5 


59.7 


5.0 


1717 


Linseed meal 


32.2 


9.2 


38.4 


3.0 


1635 


Wheat straw 


3.4 


38.1 


43.4 


1.3 


1734 


Oat straw 


4.0 


37.0 


42.4 


2.3 


1648 


Red top hav 


7.9 


28.6 


47.5 


1.9 


1612 




Cottonseed hulls . . . 


2.5 


46.0 


36.0 


1.0 


1644 


Timothv hav 


5.9 


29.0 


45.0 


2.5 


1591 


Red clover 


12.3 


24.8 


38.1 


3.3 


1537 


Corn fodder. . 


4.5 


14.3 


34.7 


1.6 


1062 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 79 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTEE VII. 

How TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF COTTONSEED PRODUCTS. 

('Address before the Inter-State Cottonseed Crushers' As- 
sociation annual meeting at New Orleans, La., 
May 16, 1905.) 

SOME RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED BY PUBLICITY. 

A gentleman of long experience in the oil mill business 
said to me recently, that whenever the mills have an unfav- 
orable season they go around looking for a Moses, but at 
the same time they are always ready to make suggestions 
for the consideration of the Moses in case he should be 
found. 

In this spirit several interesting suggestions were made 
during the recent crushing season, looking to improving 
conditions. 

One suggestion is that the mills shall establish co-opera- 
tive refineries and refine and store oil until the market is 
satisfactory to the producer, and another plan proposed is 
that the crude mills shall stop crushing seed, and hold the 
oil on hand until the production only equals the demand. 

Both of these suggestions seem to have been based on the 
idea of over production. The remedy offered for this con- 
dition is that less oil should be produced. 

This idea seems defective, first because oil was the only 
product considered, and second because storing a product, 



THE GREAT 

SO COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

waiting for a demand might result in serious loss, while the 
closing down of the crude mills without making proper ef- 
fort to better these conditions otherwise, might impair the 
value of the investment. 

Entertaining the hope that a Moses will appear, if 
needed, I submit the suggestion that it is better to increase 
consumption than to curtail production, and to justify this 
plan the home demand for our product must be increased. 
, Our industry is closer than any other to the farmer who 
\ sells us his seed. In a measure, we work on toll for him 
jusi as the corn mill does. He is not now our largest cus- 
tomer, but he should be. The farmers of the South need all 
of our products and we need their surplus seed. Whenever 
we can pay good prices for seed, we realize proportionate 
prices for our by-products. An unfavorable feature of the 
business is that we do not sell enough of these products to 
the parties w r ho sell us their seed. They are our best cus- 
tomers for what they buy, and we should show them it is 
to their interest to buy more largely. 

Twelve years ago at Atlanta we sold our meal to fertilizer 
companies or exported it. At the same time we used hulls 
for fuel. At this time about three-fourths of our meal is 
sold to feeders and dairymen, and we are unable to supply 
the demand for hulls from local production. The demand 
/ has been created by hard work among the farmers and 
dairymen. If similar efforts were made in other parts of 
Georgia, and the South, Ave should have very little surplus 
meal and hulls, and if any cake or meal was exported, it 
would bring satisfactory prices. 

Our agricultural experiment stations should be induced 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 81 

OF THE SOUTH 

to take greater interest in oil mill products. Besides mak- 
ing practical experiments, and advertising results, thay 
should employ lecturers to address the farmers' institutes 
on the value and use of meal and hulls, and thus keep them 
constantly before the people. If the mills would follow up 
this work with exchanges of meal and hulls for seed, they 
would greatly enlarge their home market. 

Marketing oil is not so easy a proposition as marketing 
the by-products, but the home use of it can be increased. 

Our friend, Mr. Jo Allison, and our secretary,,Mr. Kobt. 
Gibson, have shown that a pound of high grade cooking oil, 
added to three gallons of milk in the churn, will add 



than one pound of fine butter to the yield. This field is un- 
limited. Mr. Allison says that one million gallons of milk 
are churned every day in Texas. If to every three gallons 
of milk, one pound of oil was added, we would have a mar- 
ket in Texas alone for our surplus oil. 

At one refinery in Mississippi about 1,000 barrels of oil 
are sold annually to local consumers. If each of the crude 
mills in the South sold one-half as much, they would take 
from the market the biggest surplus the trade has ever 
known. In Georgia we have recently established a retail 
trade for the cooking oil at many of the crude mills, and 
although this has been in operation only a few weeks, the 
result is most encouraging. 

While much of what is here outlined may be accom- 
plished by individual effort, it can be greatly expedited by 
proper organization. Ever}^ state in the South should have 
State Crushers' Associations. These organizations should j 
co-operate with the manufacturers of oleomargarine, who 



THE GREAT 

82 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

it is understood will work for a repeal of the oleomargarine 
law. These associations should assist in every effort to pro- 
mote friendly foreign relations in our interest, and prevent 
unfriendly domestic legislation, and should devise means 
tor the proper advertising of our products among our own 
people. 

State associations are necessary to make more effective 
the rules governing the sales of products adopted from time 
to time by the Inter- State Crushers' Association and by the 
commercial organizations interested in our trade. Many 
of the disagreements growing out of transactions bet ween 
the mills are due to a misunderstanding of the terms of the 
trade and the rules which were made. 

Properly managed, the great industry is of immense ben- 
efit to the South. It should be encouraged in every legiti- 
mate way. 

Let us get together and forget the little troubles we have 
and take a bigger and broader view of the whole situation, 
and turning our eyes to the future, work on the principle 
of the "Georgia Gospel" as expounded by that sunny 
hearted Georgia poet Frank Stanton : 

"No use in grievin 7 

'Bout the milk you spill ; 
Keep on believin' 

That the cow'll stand still." 




THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 83 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER VIII. 

SOME INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT COTTONSEED OIL. 

HOW IT MASQUERADED UNDER DIFFERENT NAMES IN DIFFERENT 
COUNTRIES HOW IT WAS MIXED AND BLENDED WITH 
OTHER AND INFERIOR PRODUCTS HOW IT WAS FINALLY 
PUT ON THE MARKET UNDER ITS OWN NAME AND TRI- 
UMPHANTLY WON ON ITS HIGH MERITS. 

The manufacture of cottonseed oil is a peculiar Industry 
and while all other manufacturers have enjoyed some kind 
of protection from the government, this has lived in spite 
of governmental opposition and without assistance from 
the government. For many years during the growth of this 
infant industry it was satisfied to live under many nom de 
plumes. As the sweet New England songster, the bobolink, 
delighted the musical artists of New England and after- 
wards pleased the palates of the epicures of Charleston, as 
the rice bird, so cotton oil was willing to become olive 
oil in Spain, peanut oil in France, cocoanut oil in the Phil- 
ippines, sesame oil in Africa, lard oil in Chicago, corn oil i 
in Cincinnati, hog lard oil all over the world, butter in the / 
Jersey Islands, and still remain the cottonseed oil of the 
South. 

Finally its aristocratic brethren, the olive growers of 
Europe, appealed to their respective governments for pro- 
tection against this invader, which had become more popu- 
lar than themselves in their own countries. They succeeded 
in having almost prohibitive duties levied upon it when ex- 



THE GREAT 

84 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

ported. This was pretty hard, but when the government of 
the United States prohibited the manufacture of oleomar- 
arine, cotton oil found itself without friends in any of the 
governments of the world and opposed by its own govern- 
ment. It concluded that it was time to throw off all dis- 
guises and stand in its own right and on its OAVU merits be- 
fore the world. It was then converted into cottolene and 
advertised as a cotton oil product and under this name its 
popularity increased. In Georgia, at Savannah, it enters 
into the composition of Snowdrift, one of the purest and 
best of compounds, and into Flakewhite at Macon, and it 
has proven to all people that these products are Avholesome 
and free from diseases common among swine. It now 
spurns any connection with hog fat. It no longer mas- 
querades under the name of any foreign oil. In Savannah 
it is Wesson Snowdrift oil, good for cooking and salads, 
and competes with the best olive oil and butter. 

So popular has cottonseed oil become for edible and cul- 
inary purposes that the handful of olive growers in Cali- 
fornia once declared that the palates of the people had 
become so accustomed to the flavor of cotton oil, that they 
had come to regard the pure olive oil as adulterated. 

Some of our own Southern State legislatures passed 
laws against the use of cotton oil in the manufacture of 
butter substitutes, for the protection of the few dairymen 
who make Jersey butter. Since the manufacture of oleo- 
margarine was practically prohibited by national legisla- 
tion, many of the best hotels of the country have been 
flooded with a renovated rancid butter, disgusting to the 
palate and not wholesome to the stomach. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER IX. 
A GENERAL REVIEW OF THE COTTON OIL INDUSTRY. 

(Annual address before the Inter-State Cottonseed Crush- 
ers' Association, Louisville, Ky., May 19, 1908.) 

THE WORK OF THE INTER-STATE COTTONSEED CRUSHERS' ASSO- 
CIATION FOR THE YEAR 1908 THE CONDITIONS AFFECTING 
THE INDUSTRY ITS IMMENSE POSSIBILITIES THE CO-OP- 
ERATION OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT IN PROMOTING 
ITS INTERESTS THE FOREIGN TRADE OLEOMARGARINE 
GRADING COTTONSEED- PUBLICITY BUREAU EXHIBITS OF 
COTTONSEED PRODUCTS. 

When you met at Jamestown a year ago you had just 
closed a fairly successful operating season. You were able 
to submit balance sheets to your stockholders showing reas- 
onable profits on their investments. If the result this year 
is not as satisfactory as last it is due to causes largely be- 
yond your control. You can at least congratulate your- 
selves upon having ended a phenomenal season without se- 
rious loss, following financial conditions that closed banks, 
forced railroads into receiverships, and overwhelmed many 
other industries, while no actual failure of cotton oil mills 
has been reported and the future of your business is exceed- 
ingly promising. 

The acreage in cotton this year, with good crop condi- 
tions, insures you the raw material needed, and the in- 




THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 

creased demand for your products is the best guarantee of 
future sales. 

THE FUTURE DEMAND FOR COTTON OIL. 

There is little probability of an increased production of 
olive or other vegetable oils in Europe. The increasing- 
population of the world provides for any probable increase 
in the production of cotton oil, and the Eastern markets 
opened to this product last year are among consumers who 
do not use animal fats. As the seasons go by the merits of 
this oil become better known, and it must necessarily sup- 
ply the shortage in the world's requirements. 

If you think that I am too sanguine regarding the future 
demand for your oil I refer you to the flood of reports 
coming from United States consuls regarding conditions 
in foreign markets. I quote only a few : 

Consul James E. Dunning, Milan, Italy. "Short crops 
are bound to occur in Italy every few years, while the pros- 
pects for the general normal trade in cottonseed oil is prom- 
ising in the extreme. The prospect for future development 
of the trade is excellent. Cotton oil has become nearly 
indispensable to the Italian market." 

Consul Paul Nash, Venice, Italy. "Even under the best 
conditions Italy cannot produce edible oil enough for home 
consumption, plus the demand for olive oil abroad." 

Consul-General Frank 11. Mason, Paris, France. "The 
use of cottonseed oil for cooking purposes is increasing 
rapidly not only in France, but in Italy and other Euro- 
pean countries." 

Consul-General Skinner, Marseilles, France. "The 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 

worldwide need of oils arid greases goes on increasing, 
while the raw material areas are known, limited and sub- 
ject to no systematic effort toward eulargement." 

Consul-General Ekehl, Germany. "American cottonseed 
oil is used extensively here." 

Consul William Harrison, Bradley, England. "There i>s 
a large and increasing use of cottonseed oil here." 

Consul-General Loren Listoe, Netherlands. "Cotton- 
seed oil is imported and used in the Netherlands in great 
quantities." 

Consul Frank B. Hill, Holland. "Imports (of cotton 
oil) are increasing every year and are almost exclusively 
from the United States." 

Consul George M. Ilotschick, Austria. "Cottonseed oil 
hundreds of thousands of barrels of which are consumed 
cannot be produced either in Austria or in all Europe 
and is not in any way to be replaced." 

Consul Felix S. S. Johnson, Switzerland. "Each year 
shows a marked increase in cottonseed oil importations." 

Consul Jesse B. Jackson, Syria. "The importation of 
the products of cottonseed oil is increasing very rapidly." 

Consul-General G. E. Anderson, Rio de Janeiro. "As 
between olive oil and cottonseed oil, conditions generally, 
including tariff rates, are decidedly in favor of the cotton- 
seed product." 

No further evidence is needed to prove that the high | 
quality of your oil and the demand for it have been firmly 
established in the markets of the world, and especially in 
the olive-growing regions. The puny attempts of a few olive< 
Growers in California to discredit cottonseed oil may be 



THE GREAT 

88 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

compared with a Florida zephyr trying to stop a Texas 
tornado. 

Not only has cottonseed oil proven its superior quality, 
taking its place alongside the best grades of olive oil, but 
your chief by-product, cottonseed meal, is finding new uses 
in foreign and domestic markets, which means a demand 
at fair prices for any production that may reasonably be 
expected. 

Conservatism in your business and persistent advertising 
of your products will secure you fair, just and reasonable 
returns on your labor and investment for the coming 
season. 

THE OBJECT OP THE ASSOCIATION. 

In some sections of the South conditions other than 
financial have made the business unsatisfactory, but an 
improvement may be expected even in this respect in the 
near future. There are ho irreconcilable differences be- 
tween the refining and the crude interests ; none should be 
allowed to exist and none possible do exist between those 
who are members of this association. 

In discussing the sentiments and purposes of the United 
States toward the South American republics Secretary 
Koot used words that will define the objects and purposes 
of this association. He said: "We desire to increase our 
prosperity ; to extend our trade ; to grow in wealth, in wis- 
dom and in spirit; but our conception of the true way to 
accomplish this is not to pull down others that we may 
profit by their ruin, but to help all friends to a common 
prosperity that we may become greater and stronger to- 
gether." 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 89 

OF THE SOUTH 

Membership in the association will, as Secretary Root 
again says regarding trade, -establish kindly and agreenWe 
personal relations which are so potent in leading to busi- 
ness relations." 

Those interests you represent here, whether your own 
or others, are best served by contributing to the success of 
this association that has already accomplished so much 
good for the industry and, by reason of what it has already 
accomplished, is in position to increase these benefits many 
times over in the future. 

You have left your homes and come to this meeting for 
a serious business purpose ; you are earnest business men ; 
you have come to serve the highest and best interests of the 
industry you represent, and you Avill do this with fidelity 
and loyalty. The pleasure and entertainment that our 
Louisville friends have prepared for us will be thoroughly 
enjoyed and appreciated and A\i 11 contribute, in a large 
measure, to the success of the work you have come to do. 
Like the dressing to the salad, it will make better the 
serious part of the program. 

COTTONSEED PRODUCTS IN FOREIGN MARKETS. 

As a rule the values of all commodities are governed by i 
the markets where the surplus is sold. Eecognizing this 
fact, your officers have endeavored to maintain those for- 
eign markets already secured for your products, and to in-/ 
crease the demand in those countries where about one-third ' 
of your products are now sold, and to create new ones, real- 
izing that conditions existing there reflect and react upon 
your home markets. 

Two years ago, under President Bailey's administration, 



THE GREAT 

90 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

the State Department at Washington, co-operating with 
the Department of Commerce and Labor, was induced to 
call for reports from the United State consuls in all parts 
of the world showing stocks of cottonseed products and 
stocks of oil-bearing seeds and commodities competing 
with cottonseed products in the various countries to which 
these consuls were accredited. In addition to this the con- 
suls were requested to report on the consumption and uses 
of the products and the possibility of further increasing 
the sales. 

These reports have been made, and published, daily, as 
received by the Department of Commerce and Labor, and 
were also published as a separate pamphlet last year and 
distributed at Jamestown. A second edition, including 
the first pamphlet and all consular reports received since 
its publication, was issued this year by the department 
under special authority and by special appropriation of 
Congress. These publications have been interesting and 
exceedingly valuable to every one engaged in the industry. 
They have not only shown what has been done, and what is 
being done, but what may be done to further increase our 
trade, and how to increase it. These reports have been 
mailed by the Department of Commerce and Labor to every 
member of our association, and they have contained abun- 
dant practical information. The manufacturers individ- 
ually, and the association collectively, should take advan- 
tage of the opportunities thus presented. 

In addition to the consular reports called for, Hon. Oscar 
S. Straus, Secretary of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor, last year appointed Mr. J. L. Benton as a special 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 91 

OF THE SOUTH 

foreign agent to travel, in foreign countries and investigate 
conditions affecting our industry and to exploit our prod- 
ucts. Mr. Benton discharged these duties with admirable 
fidelity and unusual ability, but owing to ill health was 
compelled to resign the position. Subsequently, on the 
nomination of our association held in New Orleans in Sep- 
tember, 1907, Mr. A. G. Perkins was appointed to succeed 
Mr. Benton, and he has already submitted some very val- 
uable reports, and as he acquires experience and a fuller 
knowledge of the conditions in the countries visited he will 
be of even greater service to the industry. 

The members of this association should co-operate fully 
with the Department of Commerce and Labor and the 
Bureau of Manufactures and sustain Mr. Perkins in his 
work by every means in their power, but especially should 
they encourage him by letters of commendation and by 
suggestions that will help him to produce practical and 
satisfactory results. 

The association is greatly indebted to Hon. Oscar S. 
Straus, Secretary of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor, and to Hon. John M. Carson, chief of the Bureau of 
Manufactures in that department, for the great interest 
they have shown in our industry and for the practical 
services they have rendered, and suitable resolutions to 
that effect should be adopted at this meeting. 

With the work now being done to advance and maintain! 
o v ir foreign trade by the government, by its consuls an< 
special agents, and with the splendid advertising by oui 
publicity bureau and by the State bureaus, we can expeci 






THE GREAT 

92 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

within a reasonable time a considerably increased demand 
for all of onr products. 

Hon. John M. Carson, of the Bureau of Manufactures, 
Department of Commerce and Labor, has furnished me 
statements of the total exports of cottonseed products for 
the jears ending March 1907 and 1908, as follows: 
Domestic Exports of Cottonseed Products from the United 
States During the Twelve Months Ending March 
31, 1907 and IMS, Respectively. 

EXPORTS OP COTTONSEED PRODUCTS, YEARS 1907-1908. 



-1907 



Pounds. Value. 

Cottonseed oil, gallons 41,350,396 $15,724,580 

Cottonseed oil cake and meal . . .1,196,319,442 15,403,858 

Lard compounds and substitutes 78,533,955 5,703,672 



Total 136,832,110 

r- -1908 -^ 

Pounds. Value. 

Cottonseed oil, gallons 39,742,710 $17,619,241 

Cottonseed oil cake and meal . . . 1,060,291,437 13,367,748 
Lai-d compounds and substitutes 75,228,754 6,147,713 



Totals $37,134,702 

This shows total value of exports last year $36,832,110, 
against $37,134,702 this year, exclusive of linters. 

Cousul-General Hugh Pitcairn, of Hamburg, reported on 
December 23, 1907, that "owing to the scarcity and high 
value of cottonseed oil, churners resorted to experiments 






THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 93 

OF THE SOUTH 

which greatly hurt butterine consumption, increasing the 
popularity of another product, viz., cocoanut butter, which 
in many sections of the country has almost entirely re- 
placed butterine so far as the lard requirements of bakers 
and confectioners are concerned." 

It is probably true that the high prices of cottonseed oil 
in European markets, together with the financial stringency 
of the times, is one of the chief causes of the slight decline 
in the total amount exported. It is also doubtless true 
that the domestic cousuniYjtion of oil has greatly increased 
the demand for the pure oil and compounds made from it, 
such as lard substitutes and oleomargarine, which reduced 
the quantity available for export. 

COMPLAINTS BY IMPORTERS. 

Iii his able address to the association at Jamestown last 
year Major John M. Carson, chief of the Bureau of Man- 
ufactures, Department of Commerce and Labor, said: 
'''The principles that underlie successful trade are funda- 
mental, and the law that directs it, although unwritten, is 
universal. Strict integrity is just as essential in the 
Orient as in the Occident." 

This sentiment is fully indorsed by this association, and 
in order that our trade may not suffer by reason of any 
departure from it we should carefully and thoroughly in- 
vestigate any complaints coming from any customer, for- 
eign or domestic, against any member of this association. 
The high reputation for personal and business integrity 
enjoyed by the members of this association must be main- 
tained. 



THE GREAT 

94 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

Consul Robert J. Thompson, in a report to the govern- 
ment from Hanover, Germany, says : "The moral status of 
the cottonseed meal and oil trade does not seem to be in 
a condition satisfactory to the German importer. There is 
a general complaint against the irresponsibility of the 
brokers of certain of the Southern cities. Charges of bad 
faith and failure to fill contracts are freely made and claims 
of inability to collect judgments against the American ex- 
porter granted under contract by the arbitration board of 
the Hamburg Association of Feed Merchants are cited by 
old and established dealers. If this be true the remedy 
that would at once suggest itself would be the establish- 
ment of a penalty clause in the by-laws of the Cottonseed 
Crushers' Association involving the forfeiture of member- 
ship of mills or brokers shown to have violated articles of 
agreement or contracts with foreign purchasers, and par- 
ticularly so with the foreign purchaser, because of his fear 
of expense and uncertainty in instituting legal proceedings 
to recover losses in a foreign state and his lack of facilities 
for the collection of debts or judgments. The maintenance 
of confidence in foreign trade is one of the greatest essen- 
1 tiaLs and if the clean and honorable development of a great 
and growing industry can be furthered by the excision and 
sacrifice of harmful elements organized provision should be 
thus made by the cottonseed interests to protect and pro- 
mote the trade." 

We do not know that there is any just cause for the com- 
plaints reported by Consul Thompson, but they should be 
investigated either by the committee on appeals and griev- 
ances or a special committee appointed for that purpose, 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 95 

OF THE SOUTH 

and the characters of the parties against whom the, com- 
plaints or charges are made vindicated, or the facts estab- 
lished and the penalty enforced. We cannot permit an 
indictment like that made by the German importers to pass 
without notice. 

I have requested Special Agent Perkins to urge all 
reputable foreign dealers in our products to become mem- 
bers of this association, in order that any grievances they 
may have may be brought before this body for correction, 
and I am glad to say that several have already sent in their 
applications for membership, and it is probable that others 
will do likewise at an early date. 

THE HANDLING OF COTTONSEED PRODUCTS BY OCEAN STEAM- 
SHIP LINES AND IN FOREIGN PORTS. 

You are familiar Avith the various reports that have been 
made by the special foreign agents on the handling of cot- 
tonseed products by ocean steamship lines and in foreign 
ports. The report of Special Agent J. L. Benton covering 
this subject, published by the Department of Commerce and 
Labor Bureau of Manufactures, impressed the executive 
committee with the necessity for prompt and vigorous 
action. 

The president, Avith the authority of the executive com- 
mittee, called a special meeting of the association to con- 
sider the matter, and this was held in New Orleans, Sep- 
tember 23, 1907. Representatives of ocean steamship lines 
were present and the subject fully and exhaustively dis- 
cussed between them and our members. The result of the 
meeting Avas the appointment of committees from this asso- 



THE GREAT 

96 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

elation to confer with the representatives of the ocean 
steamship lines at New Orleans, Galveston and other ports, 
with a view to bringing about improvements in the ship- 
ment of cottonseed products by ocean lines, and in the 
discharge of these products by the ships in foreign ports. 

The reports of these various committees will be submitted 
to you at this meeting for your consideration. It appears 
therefrom that the mills are to blame in part for the bad 
conditions existing, in that they do not put up their 
products in proper packages. It will also appear, however, 
that the steamship lines do not exercise the care in the 
handling of these products, both in the loading and unload- 
ing, that their value and the freight paid justifies, and from 
a recent report of the special agent of the government, Mr. 
Albert G. Perkins, it is evident that conditions on the other 
side have not improved, and that the handling of cottonseed 
meal, especially, continues to be very badly done, to the 
great injury and damage of the product. This report of 
Mr. Perkins has doubtless been read by every member of 
this association. 

Possibly those mills which do not themselves export oil 
or meal, do not fully realize their own interest in the ques- 
tion. Our domestic market depends in a large measure 
on the foreign markets, and, therefore, every mill manu- 
facturing oil or meal is interested in keeping the foreign 
markets in the best possible condition. To do this the 
association must put its powerful influence behind this 
movement and every member must feel a personal interest 
in the result. The government agents have shown us one 
of the causes of the heavy losses in our business. The 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 97 

OF THE SOUTH 

duty and the responsibility to correct this condition is on 
us. 

1 advise that standing committees be created at each of 
the ports where cottonseed products are exported in suffi- 
cient quantity to justify it; that these committees continue 
to press the matter on the transportation companies, and 
that they co-operate with *the special government agents 
abroad and with the mills at home to the end that the pres- 
ent wasteful methods may be abolished. 

Direct trade with Europe has always been the dream of 
the South. The great industry we represent will contribute 
much toward the realization of that dream if its interests 
are fairly and justly treated. 

IMPROVED CONDITIONS IN FOREIGN MARKETS. 

Cottonseed oil has found a ready market in all European 
countries. Naturally, it was first introduced into those 
countries where the people were accustomed to the use of 
vegetable oils. Having been considered alongside of olive 
and all other vegetable oils, its usage became general. In 
fact, its adoption was so universal that the producers of 
other oils, disturbed over its popularity, succeeded in 
having some of their governments enact tariff laws to pre- 
vent cotton oil competition. But the fact is being gen- 
erally recognized that the producers of other oils cannot 
supply the demand, and a more conservative feeling in 
regard to the tariff now prevails. 

Spain and Austria alone now have tariffs that are prac- 
tically prohibitive, and a modification of these tariffs may 
be expected. This is especially true of the Austrian laws. 



THE GREAT 

9 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

Owing to the great development of the oleomargarine in- 
dustry, efforts have been made, and are now being made, 
by the State Department at Washington to bring about 
a reduction of the Austrian tariff, arid this is also being 
urged by the Austrian manufacturers of lard and butter 
substitutes, who recognize that their trade by the imposi- 
tion of the high tariffs has been injured. The Austrian 
Economical Society has also taken up the matter as shown 
in a recent report of United States Consul McFarland: 
"Meetings are being held and pressure being brought to 
bear upon the government to secure a reduction of the 
present rates." 

During the year our government succeeded, through the 
work of the American Embassy at Constantinople, in re- 
moving all restrictions on the sale of cottonseed oil in the 
Ottoman Empire, and sales were almost immediately made, 
the contracts for forward oil amounting, according to the 
report of Cousul-General Ozmun, to one thousand barrels 
monthly. The consul adds that "this opens up an inviting 
field to American producers." 

In January Hon. Elihu Hoot, Secretary of the Depart- 
ment of State at Washington, completed an agreement with 
the French ambassador to America by which the minimum 
duty on cottonseed oil was retained by France. This was 
a distinct victory for our industry, as the maximum rate 
had been threatened. 

In other European countries the tariffs are not burden- 
some, and are not likely to affect our exports. 

In South America all the conditions favor cotton oil, at 
least in such countries where we are likely to do business. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 99 

OF THE SOUTH 

Consul-General Anderson says of these markets that "the 
market is growing rapidly and promises much." "As~be- 
tween olive oil and cottonseed oil," he says, "conditions 
generally, including tariff rates, are decidedly in favor of 
cottonseed oil." 

So far, therefore, as the present foreign tariffs are con- 
cerned, conditions are favorable to our product, except in 
Spain and Austria, and the latter will no doubt soon find it 
necessary to modify her laws. 

RECIPROCITY. 

In January last, Mr. Alvin H. Sanders, chairman of the 
American Eeciprocal Tariff League, advised us that a 
meeting would be held in Washington on February 3, repre- 
senting the National Manufacturers 7 Association, the Na- 
tional Grange, Chicago Board of Trade and other com- 
mercial organizations, and extended an invitation to our 
association to send a representative. This invitation was 
submitted to the members of the executive committee, who 
favored its acceptance, and Mr. T. S. Young, of New York, 
was appointed a delegate. He will submit his report to 
this meeting. 

In this connection and bearing on this subject, I wish to 
call your attention to the foreign tariffs on cottonseed oil 
and to the American duties on oils of various kinds under 
the United States tariff laws. Without going too much 
into details it is sufficient to state that many of the coun- 
tries of Europe levy tariffs against cottonseed oil, while we 
levy similar tariffs on other vegetable oils imported into 
this country. The American tariff on olive oil not spe- 



THE GREAT 

100 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

cially provided for is 40 cents per gallon, and on olive oil in 
bottles, jars, etc., is 50 cents per gallon. Practically all of 
the other vegetable oils are taxed by our government to 
some extent, while our product suffers similarly in some 
other countries. 

In advising me of the agreement between the United 
States and France by which the minimum duties on cotton- 
seed oil were retained in France, Secretary Boot says : "I 
take this occasion to call your attention to the importance 
to American trade of our having a maximum and minimum 
tariff so that we can make it an object for other countries 
to give us their lowest rates. Under our present single 
tariff system we are obliged, practically, to trade with other 
countries alike, no matter how they trade with us." 

You are familiar, of course, with the recent message of 
President Roosevelt urging tariff revision. This matter 
has also been vigorously pushed by the National Associa- 
tion of Manufacturers and our co-operation requested. I 
will present. to the meeting some recent communications 
from this association on the subject for your consideration. 

In view of the large trade that our industry enjoys with 
foreign countries, this matter should have most serious 
consideration, and 1 think should be handled by our legis- 
lative committee between the sessions of our association. 

OUR FOREIGN TRADE AND GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS. 

King Edward of England is called the great commercial 
drummer of Europe. His principal rival in this field is 
Emperor William of Germany. While the heads of these 
powerful governments are vigorously pushing the commer- 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 101 

OF THE SOUTH 

cial interests of their respective countries it is exceedingly 
fortunate for us that our government has among its hig4i 
officials men capable of competing with them for the 
world's trade. 

In his trip through South America Secretary of State 
Root justly earned for himself the honored title of the great 
commercial drummer of America. His public speeches on 
that trip should be read by every American manufacturer 
and exporter. 

The Secretary of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor, Hon. Oscar S. Straus, is pre-eminently a business 
man and fully understands the importance of encouraging 
and advancing American commercial interests. In the 
organization of the National Council of Commerce and in 
the investigations which he has caused to be made in 
foreign markets of conditions affecting American products 
lie has shown a realization of trade conditions that demon- 
strates his perfect fitness for the great business position 
which he holds. 

If American manufacturers will follow up the way 
pointed out by Secretaries Root and Straus, they will find 
markets for their products at prices sufficiently remunera- 
tive to take their surplus and will aid greatly in the 
removal of all signs of industrial depression or financial 
stringency. We are deeply interested in all that the heads 
of these two departments are doing to promote our foreign 
trade. If we will take advantage of the vast amount of 
information they have published on this subject we will 
realize increased profits and a more satisfactory business. 



THE GREAT 

IQ2 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN TRADE. 

The vast amount of information collected by the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor through its consular reports, 
and through the reports of its special agents regarding 
foreign commerce dealing with cottonseed products should 
be properly utilized in order that we may get the full 
benefit of it at the time it is of the greatest value. 

I therefore recommend that a committee on foreign trade 
in cottonseed products be created. The duty of this com- 
mittee should be to keep in close touch with the foreign 
trade and market conditions through the Department of 
Commerce and 'Labor and the special foreign agents and 
consuls of the United States, and should keep the members 
of the association informed through the bulletins of the 
publicity bureau, and more promptly by other means when 
they think advisable, and confidentially to the members 
only if they think this best. The committee could handle 
all inquiries from foreign dealers and could often put a 
prospective purchaser in touch with a manufacturer and 
thus increase the demand for the products. 

The committee would also, in connection with the legis- 
lative committee, keep thoroughly posted regarding the 
tariff laws of ail countries affecting cottonseed products. 

The committee, co-operating with the port committees, 
would further keep advised of the conditions affecting 
transportation of cottonseed products to foreign markets, 
the terms offered by ocean lines and show, so far as con- 
sistent advantages of shipments through American ports 
offering the greatest inducement. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 103 

OF THE SOUTH 

It is a waste of energy and of our resources to continue 
to allow our products to be handled as ballast, with the 
consequent loss, while we pay high ocean rates on it. 

THE BELGIAN CONSUL-GENERAL. 

During the year the Belgian consul-general, Hon. Paul 
Hagemans, made a trip through the South. While in that 
section he devoted considerable time to the study of cotton- 
seed products. Belgium does a very large business in these 
products with the United States, and it is hoped that the 
res Lilt of Hon. Paul Hagemans 7 visit will be to largely in- 
crease this business. 

INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITIONS. 

Expositions of both general and special character are 
held in some of the European countries almost every year, 
and it would be of great benefit to our industry to have 
complete exhibits of cottonseed products at many of them. 

In his annual report for 1907, Hon. John M. Carson, 
chief of the Bureau of Manufactures, Department of Com- 
merce and Labor, calls attention to these expositions and 
advises that the national government should accept invita- 
tions frequently extended to our country by foreign coun- 
tries to participate in them, and encourage industrial or- 
ganizations to make exhibits of their products under the 
patronage and protection of the national government. He 
further suggests that the various State governments might 
make special appropriations to assist industrial enterprises 
in making such displays of the products of their States. 

I would recommend that our publicity committee be 



THE GREAT 

104 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

requested and authorized to act with our executive com- 
mittee in giving special attention to this matter, and be 
directed to co-operate with Hon. John M. Carson in arrang- 
ing for participation in such expositions wherever prac- 
ticable, and when such work promises adequate returns 
that other organizations be requested to join with us, and 
that the various State legislatures be petitioned to make 
sufficient appropriations to cover the necessary expenses. 
It can be justly urged that any benefit derived by our in- 
dustry from such an expenditure of public money would 
likewise be of great and permanent value to other interests, 
and especially to growers of cotton in the South, inasmuch 
as an increased demand for cottonseed products would add 
immediately and permanently to the value of the cotton 
crop. 

OLEOMARGARINE. 

There is now pending in the United States Senate, 
Senate Bill No. 3152, introduced by Senator Penrose, which 
I understand if passed, would absolutely prohibit the man- 
ufacture of oleomargarine in the United States. There is 
also pending in the House, House Bill No. 557, introduced 
by Mr. Caulfield, a bill which I am informed would repeal 
all laws regarding the manufacture and sale of oleomar- 
garine in the United States except, of course, the national 
pure food laws. 

We are interested in the manufacture of oleomargarine, 
at least to the extent of the amount of cotton oil used in 
this product and, further to the extent that its manufacture 
may become of benefit to Southern dairymen. In European 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 105 

OF THE SOUTH 

countries cotton oil is extensively used in its manufacture, 
and its use for this purpose forms a very large part of the 
foreign demand for cotton oil. 

Oleomargarine is a sweet, pure, wholesome edible prod- 
uct and is sold, I understand, in this country in full com- 
pliance with the pure food laws, both national and State, 
\vhich are sometimes almost prohibitive in their provisions. 
The production of butter in both this country and Europe 
falls far short of the demand. It was stated recently in 
the London Daily Mail that the supply of butter had fallen 
below the demand for many years, and had actually 
reached the proportions of a famine in different parts of 
England. 

Without substitutes for butter the poorer people 
especially will be deprived of this absolutely necessary 
article of food. Oleomargarine has proven a satisfactory 
substitute. There seems to be no good reason why laws 
discrimating against its manufacture in favor of other 
products should be enacted, yet both national and many 
of the State governments have put restrictive laws on their 
statute books. 

The New York Appellate Division of the Supreme Court 
recently decided the oleomargarine law of that State un- 
constitutional in an important respect. The court held 
that constitutional principles were violated by the enact- 
ment, "which absolutely prohibited an important branch of 
industry for the sole reason that it competes with another 
and may reduce the price of an article of food for the 
human race." 

This matter is brought to your attention at the request of 



THE GREAT 

106 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

several members so that it may receive such consideration 
by you as you may decide it deserves. In order that it 
may be intelligently discussed I have, after consultation 
with our executive committee, extended invitations to the 
oleomargarine manufacturers to send representatives to 
this meeting, and several of them have responded. On 
behalf of the association I take pleasure in welcoming 
them here and in offering to them the usual courtesies of 
the occasion. 

Mr. J. J. Culbertson, of Texas, a member of this associa- 
tion, has consented to deliver an address on this subject 
during this meeting. 

DISCUSSING THE PRICE OF COTTONSEED. 

At the special meeting held in New Orleans in Septem- 
ber, 1907, an invitation was extended to us by Hon. Harvie 
Jordan, president of the Southern Cotton Growers' Asso- 
ciation, to appoint delegates to meet a delegation from his 
association to discuss with them the price of seed, with a 
view, if possible, of establishing some staple price. The 
delegates were appointed under resolution adopted by you 
with instructions to discuss the value of seed, but under no 
circumstances to enter into a discussion of price. 

The meeting was held and the report on the result will 
be submitted to this convention by Mr. M. S. Harper, 
president of the Georgia Cottonseed Crushers' Association, 
one of our representatives at the joint meeting. 

Our association is unique among commercial and indus- 
trial organizations in that it has never sought to fix prices 
on the raw materials, the supplies its members purchase, 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



107 



nor on the products they manufacture. On the contrary, 
at its New Orleans meeting in September, 1907, the asso- 
ciation placed itself on record against such practices, and 
it is not likely that its policy will ever be changed in this 
respect, but other associations holding different views have 
adopted a different course. The executive committees rep- 
resenting the Cotton Growers' Association and the Na- 




Heari of the American Sardine Packing Industry, Where Cotton 
Oil Is Used in Packing Fish. 

tional Farmers' Union have attempted to fix prices on 
cottonseed, frequently naming a price without proper re- 
gard to the value of products and without giving due con- 
sideration to other conditions. Often the price proposed 
for seed has been beyond the ability of the mills to pay and 
in excess of the value of the seed to the growers themselves. 
The high prices recently paid for seed by the mills will 
be hard to maintain under any circumstances, but the 



THE GREAT 

108 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

farmers may do much in that direction by more generally 
using cottonseed products in their homes and on their 
farms, instead of using competing articles. There is no 
better, more wholesome or more economical cooking fat 
than cottonseed oil, yet the growers of cottonseed continue 
to some extent to buy other articles for cooking purposes 
inferior to cotton oil and competing with it. 

Cottonseed meal stands at the head of American feeding 
materials in the percentage of fat and protein, the ma- 
terials most needed for stock feed, and yet in many sections 
growers of seed import other feeding material not so val- 
uable as cottonseed meal and pay higher prices for it. 
Likewise the growers of seed import hay and roughage for 
stock feed and pay from three to four times as much for it 
as they do for cottonseed hulls, equally as valuable if not 
superior to the articles imported. 

Cottonseed meal contains a high percentage of ammonia. 
No material, properly mixed with phosphoric acid and 
potash, makes a better commercial fertilizer for Southern 
soils and Southern crops, yet growers of cottonseed go on 
using other sources of ammonia in their fertilizers, paying 
as high or higher prices for it, thus creating and supporting 
competition against their own and the interests of the oil 
mills. 

Co-operation between the farmers and the mills is most 
desirable, in their mutual interest, so far as it can be had in 
legitimate trading. Much has been done to bring this 
about by the interstate and State publicity bureaus of the 
crushers' associations, and much more can and will be done 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 109 

OF THE SOUTH 

in the educational work in which those bureaus are now 
working. 

GRADING COTTONSEED. 

At our last annual convention at Jamestown resolutions 
were adopted, unanimously, calling attention to the preser- 
vation and better care of cottonseed and recommending 
that the members of this association in each State urge 
upon their legislatures such enactments as will fully pro- 
tect the buyers of seed by requiring sellers to deliver such 
goods as they guarantee. It was further directed that a 
committee be appointed in each State from the members of 
this association for the purpose of carrying out the recom- 
mendation. 

These committees were appointed by the president, and 
considerable correspondence resulted. For various reasons 
the matter was not pressed in any of the States, but the 
committees appointed at that time will submit the reports 
required during this session and such further action taken 
as the association thinks proper. 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEES. 

Your executive committees have worked unceasingly 
for the good of the association. Without such work noth- 
ing could have been accomplished. It is a great pleasure 
also to add that the individual members have promptly re- 
sponded to every call on them where the association's work 
has been concerned. 

The good resulting from such cordial co-operation be- 
tween officers and members was recently demonstrated in 
one particular matter pending before Congress in which 



THE GREAT 

HO .COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

our industry was deeply interested. Acting together they 
were able to show to the members of Congress the necessity 
for the continued appropriation of funds to carry on inves- 
tigations regarding our products in foreign markets and to 
aid in securing favorable action thereon. It also demon- 
strated the influence of your association and the impor- 
tance of your products. This is only one of many similar 
instances that have occurred during the year. 

In discharging the duties assigned to me I have had the 
active assistance of the executive committee, without which 
any efforts on my part to promote your interests would 
have resulted in failure. 

RULES. 

At your last annual meeting the by-laws were so amended 
as to require the committee on rules to meet in advance of 
the regular annual meeting of the association and prepare 
such amendments to the rules as might be presented and 
approved, and to print and distribute to the members such 
changes in the rules as the committee recommended. 

In accordance therewith the committee met at New 
Orleans, La., on March 24, 1908, and discussed all amend- 
ments proposed. Their report was printed and distributed 
to our members. This report has now been in the hands 
of the members about two weeks, and will also be sub- 
mitted to this meeting for your consideration and such 
action as the meeting may see proper to take. 

The committee carefully considered every change sug- 
gested and worked hard, intelligently and unselfishly to 
perfect the rules and adapt them to every condition affect- 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY HI 

OF THE SOUTH 

ing the trade in cottonseed products. I hope their recom- 
mendations will receive your approval. 

FINANCIAL. 

The annual report of the secretary and treasurer fur- 
nishes the details of receipts and disbursements. The 
year has been an unusually busy one for the association, 
involving unusual expense. The special meeting of the 
association held in New Orleans in September, the extra 
meeting of the rules committee at New Orleans in March, 
the several extra meetings of the executive committee at 
Memphis and New Orleans, the litigation over the tariff on 
press cloth, were all the result of conditions arising out of 
the growing importance of the association's work. 

The bureau of publicity has also done much more work 
than heretofore, including an increase in its publications, 
the expense being necessarily larger. While the receipts 
have practically all been expended the association closes 
the year out of debt and with probable income sufficient for 
the ensuing year to meet all current expenses. 

THE SECRETARY. 

The annual report of the secretary and treasurer, Major 
Kobert Gibson, will be submitted as usual. I wish to add 
my testimony to that of all the presidents who have pre- 
ceded me regarding Major Gibson's absolute faithfulness 
and loyalty. He has served you since the organization of 
your association. If he thinks about anything else on 
earth, besides his own family, or if he loves anything in the 
world better than your work, I have not discovered it after 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 

about three years of close personal contact with him. 
Other members of your association have served you with 
fidelity and interest, but they did sometimes think of some- 
thing else besides the association's work, while his mind 
never wanders to any other subject. I believe if you should 
wake him up at midnight or drag him drowning from the 
bottom of the Mississippi River, he would ask you for your 
dues. His report is comprehensive, but if it fails to give 
you any information that you want, search him and I will 
guarantee that you will find it in his pocket or in his head. 

PUBLICITY BUREAU. 

I ask your most careful attention to the annual report of 
the publicity bureau. Crude mill managers individually, 
as a rule, formerly made very little effort to increase the 
value of the products, and the refiners were often too well 
satisfied to allow the refined products to be used as adul- 
terants. The creation of the publicity bureau has caused 
some changes in this respect. This work has brought to- 
gether in closer relationship the refiners and the producers 
of crude oil. Its work has shown the mills that none of 
the products have brought their value in comparison with 
the commodities with which they compete, and this has 
resulted in promoting new markets and new uses, and, con- 
sequently, increased values. The refiners have also more 
fully realized this, and together with the crude mills have 
given a more permanent value to the products. 

It is, therefore, surprising that the financial support 
given the bureau should be so far less than it requires. 
This must be due to the fact that the good which has 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 
OF THE SOUTH 



113 



already been accomplished, and the opportunities for still 
greater results, are not fully understood by the association. 
Up to the time of the establishment of the bureau prac- 
tically all of the advertising of oil and the products of oil 




An English Exhibit of Cotton Oil and Hogless Lard. Confec- 
tioners' Exhibition, London. 

had been done by the refiners. The rapid increase in the 
number of crude mills and the consequent increased pro- 
duction of crude oil made it necessary to create a demand 
sufficient to meet the increased production of the oil, as 
weil as the higher price of the raw material. 



THE GREAT 

114 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

The creation of the bureau of publicity was an offer on 
the part of the crude mills to contribute their share of the 
necessary advertising expenses and to co-operate with the 
refiners in further exploiting cottonseed products. Some 
of the refiners declined this offer and withdrew from the 
association. Other refiners have given only lukewarm 
approval to the movement, while others, more in sympathy 
with it, have been more generous in their support. The 
splendid results that might be accomplished by co-operation 
between the refiners and the mills does not seem to be 
fully appreciated. 

The work accomplished by the bureau this year is fully 
set forth in the report of the committee, and should be 
gratifying to the association. The committee has per- 
formed its duty fully, and the advertising which it has given 
cottonseed products is of the highest character. Its pub- 
lications have been models of excellence. 

While the opportunities before the publicity bureau, with 
proper support, are unlimited, there is much, very much, 
that individual millers can do on their own account and in 
their own towns by co-operating with the bureau in making 
better home markets. This is too often neglected. If 
every manager and every employe would use the products 
hiinsself and talk about them more, advertise in his local 
papers, show to regular customers and to possible cus- 
tomers their value and how to use them, he would be of 
benefit to the mills and to the purchaser and to the com- 
munity and would accomplish surprising results. With 
the publicity bureau back of him to furnish the literature 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 115 

OF THE SOUTH 

needed, he would find the \vork not only pleasant and profit- 
able, but intensely interesting. 

The convention should determine what amount is needed 
to sustain the bureau of publicity, and so provide for it in 
a practical and definite way. 

EXHIBITION OF COTTONSEED PRODUCTS. 

There is no Southern industry that has been more bene- 
ficial to the country than the manufacture of cottonseed 
products. 

It has established a permanent value for cottonseed, 
adding thereby over sixty million dollars to the value of 
the cotton crop annually, even if only sixty per cent, of the 
seed are crushed. 

It has caused the investment in the South alone of ap- 
proximately seventy-five million dollars, giving employ- 
ment to over twenty-five thousand people. It has increased 
the export trade of the United States by between thirty-five 
and forty million dollars annually. Oil, its most valuable! 
product, has partly supplied the shortage in olive and other 
vegetable oils in Europe, created, by the increasing popula- ' 
tion of the old world. It has successfully entered into the 
manufacture of oleomargarine, butterine and other similar! 
substitutes in Europe and America, thus furnishing 
wholesome products in many sections where butter has bef 
come almost unknown. Lard substitutes made with it 
have largely supplanted hogs' lard and almost made the. 
South independent of this Western product. 

Its by-products have made dairying and cattle-raising in 
the South possible and profitable, and, in addition, an- 



THE GREAT 

116 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

nually supplies to European stockfeeders and dairymen 
about six hundred thousand tons of cottonseed meal and 
cake, the richest and best-known stock feed ever produced. 

In time it will create great packing-houses in the South. 
It has enriched the soil and restored abandoned lands to 
their original fertility, greatly increasing the yields of all 
crops. 

So far as the United States is concerned, the crushing of 
seed is, and must necessarily remain, a Southern monopoly. 
Mills are operated in England, Germany, China, India and 
South America, but nowhere are the products of these 
equal in quality, or even approximately so, to those pro- 
duced in the Southern States from seed gathered fresh from 
the fields. 

If this meeting would appoint a committee to take charge 
of an exposition illustrating these facts, to be held in some 
central city of the South offering the greatest inducement, 
either through municipal guarantees or through commer- 
cial or business organizations, I feel sure that the neces- 
sary amount to cover the expenses of such an exhibit would 
be raised, and the most unique, the most interesting and the 
most useful, practical display would be made that has ever 
been gathered together in the South. If the next annual 
meetings of the interstate and all the separate State or- 
ganizations were held in the city selected for this purpose 
at the same time, and if possible arrangements made for 
the dairy and stock associations to participate in the meet- 
ings and the exhibit, and similar arrangements made with 
the manufacturers of all mill machinery, such a meeting 
would bring together the largest industrial convention 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY H7 

OF THE SOUTH 

ever held in the South. The city entertaining the conven- 
tion would derive immense benefit from it. The practical 
result to our interests would be of incalculable value. 

If individual exhibits were made by the manufacturers 
of refinery products and the crude mills, the expense in- 
volved would be small compared to the results, and the asso- 
ciation itself would be called on for an insignificant part of 
the expenses needed, particularly if the city selected for the 
exhibit should contribute liberally for the purpose. 

I submit the matter to your consideration, and if you 
think the suggestion practicable would advise that a com- 
mittee be appointed from among your members to co- 
operate with committees from stock, dairy and machinery 
associations throughout the country, and endeavor to ar- 
range for such an exhibition, the details to be worked out 
by these committees. 

ADVERTISING. 

We are frequently called on by parties in foreign coun- 
tries, as well as by our own people, for information regard- 
ing our products. At no time in the history of our indus- 
try has there been more public interest in these products 
than at present. We should cultivate this condition. Our 
interstate publicity bureau and the various State bureaus 
have done splendid work in this direction, especially within 
the last year, and in addition to this our association should 
prepare and publish pamphlets in convenient form to an- 
swer special inquiries. I have just received an inquiry 
through Special Agent Perkins from the German Agricul- 
tural Society, an organization of German farmers with a 



THE GREAT 

H8 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

membership of 16,000, publishing a weekly bulletin, asking 
for information regarding the feeding value of cottonseed 
meal. We should be ab]e to answer this with printed mat- 
ter in concise, and yet complete, shape; it should give scien- 
tific as well as practical values. I suggest that the pub- 
licity committee be requested to prepare a pamphlet that 
will meet this condition. 

During the year Dr. A. M. Soule, dean of the Agricul- 
tural College of Georgia, carried a train through that State 
with exhibits of articles of interest to the farmers, accom- 
panied by lecturers able to explain the exhibits. Through 
the courtesy of Dr. Soule the manufacturers of cottonseed 
products were allowed to arrange in their exhibit car a 
full line of cottonseed, products and to send a man with the 
exhibit to explain it. The result has been most encourag- 
ing, and if followed in other States will prove of great ben- 
efit to our millers. 

The opportunities for advertising are unlimited, and if 
we did more of it through the trade journals and the news- 
papers the demand for these products w r ould immensely in- 
crease. / 

TRADE JOURNALS. 

What some one has called "hypnotism of the types" has 
been realized by our association. Owing its origin to a 
member of the press, it has received from the beginning the 
highest consideration of the trade journals, without whose 
assistance its success could not have been attained. 

The talented editors of these papers, inspired by high 
motives of public good, have, by their encouragement, their 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 119- 

OF THE SOUTH 

timely advice, their support of every movement for the good 
of the business, greatly assisted in promoting this work, 
and, in addition to their editorials, have freely used the 
columns of their papers, without charge, to exploit and 
advertise cottonseed products. 

Their good influence has been far-reaching, and we owe 
them a debt that cannot be cancelled entirely by resolu- 
tion ; we should express our obligation and our gratitude in 
the usual manner, and thus show them that their brilliant 
work for us has been appreciated. 

But we should always remember that some substantial 
recognition is just as essential to their business as to ours. 
In many parts of the country the daily press has also shown 
our interests unusual consideration, and, while this has 
been done without hope of reward other than a recognition 
of the great public service rendered, we should, wherever 
possible, remember them when we are pasisng around the 
possible, remember them when we are passing around the 
small, and the fishes should be whales, not minnows. 

OUR ASSOCIATES. 

Our friends who have laid aside their own important 
business affairs to accept our invitation to address this 
convention and to participate in its deliberations and dis- 
cussions will receive your most courteous attention. They 
come at our request to give us the benefit of their experience 
in the use of our products and to advise with us on other 
matters in which we are interested. Such encouragement 
and assistance will be greatly appreciated by you and will 



THE GREAT 

120 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

facilitate the further development of our industry, and we 
will profit by their presence. 

In your name I extend to them a most cordial welcome 
to our meeting and thank them for the sacrifice they have 
made in our interest. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

It is well that we should pause in the pursuit of business 
to pay proper respect to the memories of those of our 
members who during the year have "crossed over the 
river," to recall their services, to praise their virtues and 
to express our obligations to them for what they have 
taught us by precept and example. Since our last meeting 
we have lost from our membership by death Major Robert 
A. Allison, of Winona, Miss.; Mr. C. S. McCullough, of 
Darlington, S. 0., and Mr. J. S. Armstrong, of Dallas, 
Texas. They were all prominent in our association, con- 
tributed liberally of their means, time and talent to its 
work and to the development of the industry it represents. 

It is fitting that the association should recognize this by 
suitable records on the minutes and in the reports of its 
proceedings. Knowing that this will be indorsed by you I 
have appointed committees from among the friends of each 
of our deceased members and requested them to present 
suitable resolutions to this convention expressive of the 
sentiments of this association on the losses its members 
have sustained. 

CONCLUSION. 
Gentlemen of the convention, you represent one of the 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 121 

OF THE SOUTH 

world's youngest, greatest and most beneficial industries. 
Its great interest commands your earnest and most careful 
attention. 

You will have before you at this meeting the considera- 
tion of questions involving the continued growth and pros- 
perity of your industry ; its future is largely in your keep- 
ing; much depends on what you do during the next few 
days ; upon your actions may hang future success or failure. 
From no other source can or will these interests be so well 
guarded. I believe that here on the banks of the Ohio, the 
lins that formerly divided the people of this great country 
in strife, now a band that binds us together in mutual 
friendship and interest in this great city of Louisville, 
famous in song and story, you will be inspired to still 
greater efforts to promote the good of your own great in- 
dustry, and when you have returned to your homes and 
resumed your usual occupations, you will realize and ap- 
preciate the benefits you have derived from your attendance 
here. In the conduct of your business at home you will 
need the patience of Job and the righteousness of Abraham, 
but if you will be both patient and righteous, you will, at 
our next annual convention, be able to rejoice over your 
complete success and to congratulate yourselves on the 
good that you have done, not only for yourselves and your 
stockholders, but for the country at large. 

I need not say in conclusion that it has been the greatest 
pleasure and the greatest honor of my business life to have 
served you in the high position to which, by your partiality, 
you elected me. I have watched with the greatest interest 
and satisfaction the wonderful development of the indus- 



THE GREAT 

122 COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

try. It has grown iii a short while, as measured by trade 
developments, from a few scattered mills on the Mississippi 
and in the Piedmont region of the Carolinas, to that of a 
great manufacturing industry, conferring benefits on our 
people, receiving indorsement and encouragement of the 
national government, creating other industries, and win- 
ning the world's recognition of its products. But there yet 
remains much to be done before its full development is 
reached. That this will be accomplished and that every 
obstacle to our trade will be removed will not be doubted 
by any one familiar with the energy, ability, honesty and 
loyalty of the members of our association. 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 123 

OF THE SOUTH 



CHAPTER X. 

A MODEST LITTLE STORY OF A BIG LITTLE SEED. 

A SHORT SKETCH OF THE EARLY HISTORY OF COTTON OIL-- 
PURITY OF THE PRODUCT ITS VARIOUS USES ITS BENE- 
FITS TO THE SOUTHERN COTTON GROWER. 

It is said that story is simply an abbreviation of Ms-story, 
and, therefore, a story well told contains as many facts as 
history. In the following little story, of great achieve- 
ments from humble beginnings, everything will be facts 
except where the reverse can be inferred : 

Tradition tells us that on the site of ancient Athens, 
where opposing forces struggled for supremacy, a seed 
dropped from Heaven between the rocks and sprouted, from 
which sprang a wonderful plant, and so long as it was culti- 
vated agriculture in that country flourished. It has always 
been supposed that this was an olive, because it is an oil- 
bearing fruit and because oil has always been considered an 
emblem of plenty. 

Two thousand years ago the Chinese are said to have 
expressed oil from the cottonseed, and to have appreciated 
its merits. Nearly two thousand years later the southern 
part of the United States realized the value of cottonseed 
for its oil-bearing properties, and in a small way expressed 
the oil, and shipped it to foreign countries. At first it 
reached those markets in such small quantities that it was 
difficult to find buyers for it, and it was used for whatever 



THE GREAT 

124: COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 

OF THE SOUTH 

purpose the purchaser desired it, principally in the soap 
kettle. As larger quantities crossed the waters, the manu- 
facturers of olive oil had it brought to their attention, and 
investigation showed that it ranked with the highest grade 
of olive and other similar oils. It soon came back to this 
country masquerading under foreign titles, and dressed out 
in foreign garbs. So long as it associated only with the 
aristocratic olive, and was in such good company, no fur- 
ther efforts to exploit its virtues were made by the manu- 
facturers, until the production reached a point where 
larger markets were needed. It then found its way to the 
Western packers, and they were shrewd enough to realize 
its value to them, as it was cheaper than lard oil. The 
purity of cottonseed oil was such that it finally went into 
the market under its own merits, asserted itself under its 
own name, and declared its independence, and has since 
been recognized as the best, the purest and most wholesome 
product in any part of the world. 

A tourist asked a citizen, "What is cottonseed oil?" and 
the citizen answered, "Oil made from cottonseed,'' and 
thought he had told him all there was to be told. 

A primrose by the river's brim, 
A yellow primrose was, to him, 
And nothing more. 

If the question had been asked of any well-informed 
person, the inquirer would have been told a great many 
other things. He would have been informed that the man- 
ufacture of cottonseed oil has contributed enormously to 



THE GREAT 

COTTONSEED INDUSTRY 125 

OF THE SOUTH 

the wealth of the South, has established a business giving 
employment to thousands of people, and added millions to 
the export trade of this country. He would also have been 
told that if each inhabitant in the State of Georgia would 
use cottonseed oil in the place of lard and butter, all of 
the oil produced in Georgia would be used in the State, and 
in cfoing this the increase in the market price of the oil 
would be sufficient to increase the value of cottonseed prob- 
ably one million dollars, which would go directly to the 
farmers of Georgia, and that if the oil was used in the same 
proportions throughout the South for a few years, its en- 
hanced value would make the seed as valuable as the lint, 
and the health of the people would be greatly improved. 
With these benefits and advantages to the South, the in- 
quirer would naturally ask why the people of this State 
do not use cottonseed oil more extensively for salads and 
cooking. The answer would be that its value has not been 
fully appreciated. 




OVERDUE. 







YC 26041; 



. 





223167